Chapter 4: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology of Language

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  1. define neuroscience
    • branch of science that focuses on the
    • anatomy and physiology of the nervous system
  2. define psycholinguistics
    • cognitive processes involved with
    • developing, processing, and producing human language
  3. nervous system axes
    horizontal axis
    anterior (frontal) pole of brain to the posterior (occipital) pole of the brain
  4. nervous system axes
    vertical axis
    • superior portion of the brain downward
    • along the entire spinal cord
  5. horizontal axis
    front of the brain
  6. horizontal axis
    back of the brain
  7. vertical axis
    top of the spinal cord (near the brain)
  8. vertical axis
    bottom of the spinal cord (near the coccyx
  9. efferent
    away from the brain
  10. afferent
    toward the brain
  11. axon
    single efferent nerve extension which carries nerve impulses away from the cell body
  12. presynaptic terminal
    distal end of each terminal branch, sites at which the axonal connection of one neuron corresponds with the dendritic extension of another neuron
  13. innervate
    • supply of nerves to a particular region or part of the body
  14. cranial nerves
    emerge from brain, 12 pairs
  15. spinal nerves
    emerge from the spinal cord, 31 pairs
  16. pia matter
    inside casing layer of the brain
  17. arachnoid matter
    second layer with weblike appearance of the brain
  18. dura matter
    third layer of protective brain layers and encases brain and spinal cord
  19. cerebrospinal fluid
    • CSF
    • circulates between innermost two layers of meninges, carries chemicals important to metabolic processes and serves as important buffer for any jolts to CNS in between 1st and 2nd
  20. 12 pairs of cranial nerves
    • important for speech, lang and hearing
    • transmit info concerning 4 or 5 senses to the brain (vision, hearing, smell, taste)
    • carry motor impulses from the brain to the muscles of the face and neck, including those activating the tongues and jaw (involved with speech)
  21. what are the 7 cranial nerves that are closely related to speech and language
    • trigeminal V
    • Facial VII
    • Acoustic VIII
    • Glossopharyngeal IX
    • Vagus X
    • Accessory XI
    • Hypoglossal XII
  22. Broca's area
    • motor cortex of the left frontal lobe 
    • responsible for the fine coordination of speech output
    • named after frency physician paul broca
  23. occipital lobe
    • one lobe
    • posterior portion of the brain
    • visual reception and processing
    • primary visual cortex: posterior pole of the occipital lobe
    •     receives and processes visual info received from the eyes, fusing info on depth, space, shape, movement, and color into a single visual image
    •     visual association area-area that interprets info form primary visual cortex
    •     its main function are:
    •         visual processing
    •         visual integration
  24. word deafness
    the result of bilateral damage to right and left auditory cortices where an individual has intact processing of nonword auditory stimuli but cannot understand spoken words
  25. brainstem
    • sits directly on top of the spinal cord
    • conduit between brain and spinal cord 
    • consists of midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
  26. what are the 3 main functions of the brain
    • key transmitter of sensory info to the brain and motor inf away from the brain
    • major relay station for the cranial nerves supplying the head and face for controlling the visual and auditory senses
    • associated with metabolism and arousal
  27. what are the 3 major reflex centers
    • cardiac center (heart)
    • vasometer center (blood vessels)
    • respiratory center (breathing)
  28. frontal lobe
    executive elements of word knowledge
  29. pragmatics
    • use of lang as a social tool, understanding the rules of communication
    • draws primarily upon functions of the frontal lobe 
    •     organized, goal-directed and controlled use of lang as a means for communication with others
  30. pragmatics and willful attention
    maintain attention to a given task even when competing stimuli are present
  31. what are the jobs of parietal and frontal lobe
    • parietal lobe processes incoming stimuli
    • frontal lobe forces attention to particular stimulus selected for attention
  32. pragmatics and theory to practice
    differential diagnosis of lang disorders using neurophysiological models of lang processing
  33. pragmatics and theoretical models of lang disorders
    • specific weakness in verbal working memory, specifically processing capacity
    •     active engagement of working memory (can you get it to work when you need it to)
  34. pragmatics and differential diagnosis
    differentiating a suspected disorder from all other possible disorders
  35. sensitive period
    • timeframe of development corresponding to growth or change in a particular aspect of neuroanatomy or neurophysiology that underlies a given sensory or motoric capacity
    •     studies of pregnant women in Nagasaki and Hiroshima in WWII
    •     brain damage, mental retardation, mircorcepahyly due to radiation btw 56-105 days significant prenatal growth time
    •     1 corresponds to a period of active neuroanatomical and neurophysiological change
    • change is possible beyond the period of sensitivity
    •     1 sensitive periods represent a phase of not only opportunity, but also of risk
    •     2 sensitive periods have a beginning and an endpoint, and the length of this period varies for different aspects of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology
  36. neural plasticity
    • malleability of the central nervous system 
    • capacity for the sensory and motor systems to organize and reorganize themselves by generating new synaptic connections, or by using existing synapses for alternative means
  37. experience-expectant plasticity
    • changes in brain structures that occur due to normal experiences
    •     develops obligatory cortical functions that organize basic sensory motor neural systems
  38. experience dependent plasticity
    unique to a given individual, requires highly-specific types of experiences for chage
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Chapter 4: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology of Language
2013-07-11 21:34:25
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