Fundamentals of Flight
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Fundamentals of Flight
What are Newton's three laws of motion?
Inertia, Acceleration, and Action/Reaction
What is Newtons Law of Inertia?
A body at rest will remain at rest, and a body of motion will remain in motion at the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an external force.
What is Newton's Law of Acceleration?
The force required to produce a change in motion is directly proportional to its mass and rate of change in its velocity.
When is motion started, stopped or changed?
When forces acting on the body become unbalanced.
What is rate of change also known as?
What are the two components of acceleration?
Lift and thrust
What is Newton's Law of Action/Reaction?
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
What are the two components of fluid flow pressure?
Static and Dynamic pressure
What is static pressure?
The pressure component measured in the flow but not moving with the flow as pressure is measured.
What is dynamic pressure?
The component existing as a result of movement of air.
What is total pressure?
The sum of dynamic and static pressure.
What makes up 75% of lift?
What makes up the other 25%?
Action/reaction from the downward deflection of air as it leaves the trailing edge of the airfoil and by the downward deflection of air impacting the exposed lower surface of the airfoil.
What is an airfoil?
A structure or body designed to produce a reaction by its motion through the air.
What are the two types of airfoils?
Symmetrical and Non-Symmetrical
Describe a symmetrical airfoil.
Has identical upper and lower surface designs, the mean camber line and chord line being coincident and producing zero lift at zero AOA.
What is a mean camber line?
A line drawn halfway between the upper and lower surfaces.
What is a chord line?
A straight line intersecting the leading and trailing edges of an airfoil.
What does AOA stand for?
Angle of Attack
What is the Angle of Attack?
The angle between the airfoil and the chord line and resultant wind.
What is resultant relative wind?
Relative wind modified by induced flow.
Describe a nonsymmetrical airfoil.
Has different upper and lower surface designs, greater curvature of the airfoil above the chord line than below, and the mean camber line and chord line aren’t coincident.
What is relative wind?
Airflow relative to an airfoil.
What creates relative wind?
Movement of an airfoil through the air.
What does TAF stand for?
Total Aerodynamic Force
What is Total Aerodynamic Force?
The pressure differential between the upper and lower surfaces of an airfoil combined with air resistance to passage of the airfoil.
What are the two components of total aerodynamic force?
Lift and Drag
What are the four forces acting on an aircraft?
Lift , Weight, Thrust, and Drag
What is lift?
The component of the airfoil’s total aerodynamic force perpendicular to the resultant wind.
What is drag?
The component of the airfoil’s total aerodynamic force parallel to the resultant relative wind.
What is parasite drag?
Drag that is incurred from the non-lifting portions of the aircraft.
What is profile drag?
Drag that is incurred from frictional resistance of the blades passing through the air.
What is induced drag?
Drag that is incurred as a result of production of lift.
What is weight?
The force that opposes lift.