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Data
Measurement information that can be used to describe objects, conditions, events, or changes.

Referent
Vague References. You refer to, or think of, a given property in terms of a more familiar object.

Tools
What you can hold, or observations (patterns)

Objects
Things that can be seen or touched

SI
Standard International

What do each of these measure?
Meter
Kilogram
Kelvin
Second
Ampere
Mole
Candela
 Meter: length
 Kilogram: mass
 Kelvin: temperature
 Second: time
 Ampere: current
 Mole: amount of a substance
 Candela: luminosité

Metric system is based on the # ___
10

A cube only measures ___ side, but you can determine ____ & _____.

is density based on quantity?
No

The bigger the density, the more ____
mass

As mass increases, so does _____
Density

As density increases, so does ___
Mass

T/F
If you cut a block of platinum in half it's density decreases?
False, density never changes

What the the symbol for density?
P = density

Math terms:
Direct
Inverse
Proportionality
Numerical
 Direct: when 1 thing changes another changes in the same direction.
 Inverse: One goes up, one goes down
 Proportionality: How many liters of gas per hour
 Numerical: Number that is constant i.e.: Pi

Before science & experiments it was all ____
Thinking

Condensed scientific method
 Collecting observations
 Developing explanations
 Testing explanations

Hypothesis
tentative explanation for some observation

Experiment
recreation of an event or occurrence to test a hypothesis

Controlled experiment
 Fixed set for comparison.
 The best because you know which factors influence.

Pseudoscience
False Science

T/F
Principles are more specific than laws
True

T/F Theory has lots of validity & are rarely overturned
True

A model is useful in what 2 instances?
When something is too small, or too big, to be seen

What is the formula for slope?

___ ____ is required for any change in a state of motion.
Net force

Friction
When one thing goes over another

Motion
Change in position, explaining how change comes about & being able to apply it

Are speed & velocity the same thing?
No

What are the 3 basic concepts of motion?
 Position
 Speed & Velocity (not the same thing)
 Acceleration

What do Newton's laws of gravitation do?
Govern movement of all particles.

To measure motion you must have what 2 things?
 Change in position
 Change in time

What are 3 important combinations of legnth & time (needed for motion)?
 Speed
 Velocity
 Acceleration

What is the formula for speed?

Vector shoes _____ & ______

The ____ the arrow, the longer the magnitude
arrow

Arrows symbolize ______
Magnitude

Speed can stay the same, but you accelerate if you ___ ____
change directions

T/F Stopping is acceleration
 True
 It is negative acceleration

symbol for "final" and symbol for "initial"

What is the formula for average velocity?
 (the v has a line over it)
 f means: final
 I means: initial

Who were the first 2 people to experiment?
Galileo & Newton

The direction you are moving is = ____ ____
 Your mass (your weight).
 Think tug of war

If there is movement, there is a a ___ ___ of ___
Net Movement of Change

What are the 4 fundamental forces?
 Gravitational
 Electromagnetic
 Weak force
 Strong force

The ____ from an object the less gravitational pull it feels, and vise versa.
further

Inertia
Measure of an object's tendency to resist changes in its motion (including rest)

The more ___, the more inerta
mass

In space you must ____ force or you would never move.
accelerate

The longer something falls, the ____ __ ___. What causes this?
 Faster it goes
 Due to gravity

Terminal Velocity
When you reach a set point where gravity & airflow (velocity) balance, & you can't go any faster unless you change body shape.

Acceleration is the same for all objects when?
In the absence of air

Aerodynamics
How air impacts you

What is the formula for distance?
What does each symbol mean?
 d = distance
 a = acceleration
 t = time

What is the symbol for the force of gravity?
g

What are the 3 types of motion?
 Vertical motion
 Horizontal motion
 Combination of vertical & horizontal (think football arch)

Projectile Motion
Any motion not restricted to the ground. It's shooting through the air.

The longer the vector, the ____ it goes
faster

If you fire, or drop an arrow which hit the ground first?
They will hit at the same time

What are Newton's 3 laws of Motion?
 The law of inertia: object will not change it's motion unless acted on by something else (unbalanced force)
 2nd Force causes accelerations: more force, more acceleration.
 3rd Relates forces between objects: whenever 2 objects interact, the force exerted on one object is equal in size & opposite in direction to the force exerted on the other object.

Formula for Newton's 2nd law of motion?
What do the symbols mean?
 force = mass x acceleration
 (newton) = kg x meters per second^{2}

If ___ goes up, force & acceleration go down, and vice versa
mass

____ is the measurement of inertia (how much of you there is).
____ is the gravitational pull on your mass.

What is the difference between mass & weight?
Mass is how much of you there is, while weight is the gravitational pull on your mass

Formula for momentum
p = mv
(Density = mass x velocity)

Why does a tennis ball hit the ground harder than a paper ball?
Because the more mass, the more momentum.

______ is transformed though working or heating.
Engery

In energy is anything created, or destroyed?
No

What are the manifestations of energy?
 work
 motion
 position
 radiation (sun/light)
 heat chemical & nuclear energy
 mass itself

Physics/work has to do with the _____ & the _____ to which you apply force.

What is the formula for work?
 W=Fd
 work = force x distance
 Broken down further it is:
 work = mass x acceleration x distance
 Metric:
 Newton x Meter

In Newton:
What is the formula for Joule?
What does "Joule" stand for?
 Newton x meter = Joule
 Joule: mechanical energy

Mathematically speaking: If you carry a box up and down a stair has any work been done? Why or why not?
 No
 Because you are not changing distance

What is the simple distance formula?
F_{in}d_{in}=F_{out}d_{out}

Define Power
 Rate at which you work
 OR
 Rate at which energy is transformed

Formula for Power
P = W/t

The smaller the time, the ____ power.
The more work (Faster), the ____ power.

In horse power: the _____ the number, the faster you can go.
Bigger (Think cars)

Which would have more power:
Walking or running a mile?
Which does more work?
Running does more power & more work

Movement is ____ _____
Kinetic Energy

What is "energy"?
What is "work"?
 Energy: the ability to do work
 Work: process of changing the energy level

Potential Energy is the Energy of _____
Position

Kinetic Energy can be changed into _____ Energy
Potential

Which is more important?
Velocity or Mass?
Velocity

When stopping a car, kinetic energy increases by _____
4

The more distance you cover, the more _____ ____ ___.
work you do

When you have full _____ energy you have zero ________ energy.
And Vice Versa
Full Kinetic Energy you have no Potential Energy, and vice versa

Is nuclear energy a chemical reaction?
 NO
 Involves splitting an atom

What forms of energy can you convert to another form of energy?
All forms of energy can be converted to another form of energy

What are the 5 forms of energy?
 Mechanical Energy: Kinetic plus Potential
 Electrical Energy: Charges, currents, etc.
 Chemical Energy: chemical reactions
 Radiant Energy: Electromagnetic energy, visible light
 Nuclear energy: Involving the nucleus & nuclear reactions.

T/F When swinging a pendulum, it never stops moving?
 False
 For a split second it does not move.

A pendulum is an example of what 2 types of energy?

Most of our energy, up to _____% can be traced to ___________?

Petroleum comes from __ ____ ___
Dead life forms

Coal is
Compacted plant material

Why will we eventually run out of water?
Because, while it is renewable, it easily escapes the atmosphere

What are the 2 types of solar technologies and explain.
 Passive: use solar energy flow naturally. DIrect conversion of light to electricity
 Active: solar collector use to heat water, air, or some liquid. Mirrors focus to heat water for steam generation.

What is an example of Geothermal Energy?
Old Faithful

Hydrogen is a biproduct of _____, turns back into _____, but is hard to split.
from water, to water, hard to split water

