Physical Science 1
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Measurement information that can be used to describe objects, conditions, events, or changes.
Vague References. You refer to, or think of, a given property in terms of a more familiar object.
What you can hold, or observations (patterns)
Things that can be seen or touched
What do each of these measure?
- Meter: length
- Kilogram: mass
- Kelvin: temperature
- Second: time
- Ampere: current
- Mole: amount of a substance
- Candela: luminosité
Metric system is based on the # ___
A cube only measures ___ side, but you can determine ____ & _____.
is density based on quantity?
The bigger the density, the more ____
As mass increases, so does _____
As density increases, so does ___
If you cut a block of platinum in half it's density decreases?
False, density never changes
What the the symbol for density?
P = density
- Direct: when 1 thing changes another changes in the same direction.
- Inverse: One goes up, one goes down
- Proportionality: How many liters of gas per hour
- Numerical: Number that is constant i.e.: Pi
Before science & experiments it was all ____
Condensed scientific method
- Collecting observations
- Developing explanations
- Testing explanations
tentative explanation for some observation
recreation of an event or occurrence to test a hypothesis
- Fixed set for comparison.
- The best because you know which factors influence.
Principles are more specific than laws
T/F Theory has lots of validity & are rarely overturned
A model is useful in what 2 instances?
When something is too small, or too big, to be seen
What is the formula for slope?
___ ____ is required for any change in a state of motion.
When one thing goes over another
Change in position, explaining how change comes about & being able to apply it
Are speed & velocity the same thing?
What are the 3 basic concepts of motion?
- Speed & Velocity (not the same thing)
What do Newton's laws of gravitation do?
Govern movement of all particles.
To measure motion you must have what 2 things?
- Change in position
- Change in time
What are 3 important combinations of legnth & time (needed for motion)?
What is the formula for speed?
Vector shoes _____ & ______
The ____ the arrow, the longer the magnitude
Arrows symbolize ______
Speed can stay the same, but you accelerate if you ___ ____
T/F Stopping is acceleration
- It is negative acceleration
symbol for "final" and symbol for "initial"
What is the formula for average velocity?
- (the v has a line over it)
- f means: final
- I means: initial
Who were the first 2 people to experiment?
Galileo & Newton
The direction you are moving is = ____ ____
- Your mass (your weight).
- Think tug of war
If there is movement, there is a a ___ ___ of ___
Net Movement of Change
What are the 4 fundamental forces?
- Weak force
- Strong force
The ____ from an object the less gravitational pull it feels, and vise versa.
Measure of an object's tendency to resist changes in its motion (including rest)
The more ___, the more inerta
In space you must ____ force or you would never move.
The longer something falls, the ____ __ ___. What causes this?
- Faster it goes
- Due to gravity
When you reach a set point where gravity & airflow (velocity) balance, & you can't go any faster unless you change body shape.
Acceleration is the same for all objects when?
In the absence of air
How air impacts you
What is the formula for distance?
What does each symbol mean?
- d = distance
- a = acceleration
- t = time
What is the symbol for the force of gravity?
What are the 3 types of motion?
- Vertical motion
- Horizontal motion
- Combination of vertical & horizontal (think football arch)
Any motion not restricted to the ground. It's shooting through the air.
The longer the vector, the ____ it goes
If you fire, or drop an arrow which hit the ground first?
They will hit at the same time
What are Newton's 3 laws of Motion?
- The law of inertia: object will not change it's motion unless acted on by something else (unbalanced force)
- 2nd Force causes accelerations: more force, more acceleration.
- 3rd Relates forces between objects: whenever 2 objects interact, the force exerted on one object is equal in size & opposite in direction to the force exerted on the other object.
Formula for Newton's 2nd law of motion?
What do the symbols mean?
- force = mass x acceleration
- (newton) = kg x meters per second2
If ___ goes up, force & acceleration go down, and vice versa
____ is the measurement of inertia (how much of you there is).
____ is the gravitational pull on your mass.
What is the difference between mass & weight?
Mass is how much of you there is, while weight is the gravitational pull on your mass
Formula for momentum
p = mv
(Density = mass x velocity)
Why does a tennis ball hit the ground harder than a paper ball?
Because the more mass, the more momentum.
______ is transformed though working or heating.
In energy is anything created, or destroyed?
What are the manifestations of energy?
- radiation (sun/light)
- heat chemical & nuclear energy
- mass itself
Physics/work has to do with the _____ & the _____ to which you apply force.
What is the formula for work?
- work = force x distance
- Broken down further it is:
- work = mass x acceleration x distance
- Newton x Meter
What is the formula for Joule?
What does "Joule" stand for?
- Newton x meter = Joule
- Joule: mechanical energy
Mathematically speaking: If you carry a box up and down a stair has any work been done? Why or why not?
- Because you are not changing distance
What is the simple distance formula?
- Rate at which you work
- Rate at which energy is transformed
Formula for Power
P = W/t
The smaller the time, the ____ power.
The more work (Faster), the ____ power.
In horse power: the _____ the number, the faster you can go.
Bigger (Think cars)
Which would have more power:
Walking or running a mile?
Which does more work?
Running does more power & more work
Movement is ____ _____
What is "energy"?
What is "work"?
- Energy: the ability to do work
- Work: process of changing the energy level
Potential Energy is the Energy of _____
Kinetic Energy can be changed into _____ Energy
Which is more important?
Velocity or Mass?
When stopping a car, kinetic energy increases by _____
The more distance you cover, the more _____ ____ ___.
work you do
When you have full _____ energy you have zero ________ energy.
And Vice Versa
Full Kinetic Energy you have no Potential Energy, and vice versa
Is nuclear energy a chemical reaction?
- Involves splitting an atom
What forms of energy can you convert to another form of energy?
All forms of energy can be converted to another form of energy
What are the 5 forms of energy?
- Mechanical Energy: Kinetic plus Potential
- Electrical Energy: Charges, currents, etc.
- Chemical Energy: chemical reactions
- Radiant Energy: Electromagnetic energy, visible light
- Nuclear energy: Involving the nucleus & nuclear reactions.
T/F When swinging a pendulum, it never stops moving?
- For a split second it does not move.
A pendulum is an example of what 2 types of energy?
Most of our energy, up to _____% can be traced to ___________?
Petroleum comes from __ ____ ___
Dead life forms
Compacted plant material
Why will we eventually run out of water?
Because, while it is renewable, it easily escapes the atmosphere
What are the 2 types of solar technologies and explain.
- Passive: use solar energy flow naturally. DIrect conversion of light to electricity
- Active: solar collector use to heat water, air, or some liquid. Mirrors focus to heat water for steam generation.
What is an example of Geothermal Energy?
Hydrogen is a biproduct of _____, turns back into _____, but is hard to split.
from water, to water, hard to split water
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