The opaque, sticky secretion of the mucous membranes that lubricates the body openings.
Motion of a limb away from the midline.
A cone-shaped collecting area that connects the ureter and the kidney.
The tough, fibrous ligament that stretches between the lateral edge of the pubic symphysis and the anterior superior iliac spine.
A "backup system" to control respiration; senses drops in the oxygen level in the blood.
The part of the pharynx that lies above the level of the roof of the mouth, or soft palate.
Blood cells that play a role in the body''s immune defense mechanisms against infection; also called leukocytes.
white blood cells (WBCs)
A sac behind the pubic symphysis made of smooth muscle that collects and stores urine.
A collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach; contractions of the muscle in the wall of the esophagus propel food and liquids through it to the stomach.
The four veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
The position that has the head and torso (trunk) supine and the lower extremities elevated 6" to 12". This helps to increase blood flow to the brain; also referred to as the modified Trendelenburg''s position.
The bottom of the foot.
A thin, leaf-shaped valve that allows air to pass into the trachea but prevents food or liquid from entering.
The largest part of the three subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the "gray matter"; made up of several lobes that control movement, hearing, balance, speech, visual perception, emotions, and personality.
A small gland that surrounds the male urethra where it emerges from the urinary bladder; it secretes a fluid that is part of the ejaculatory fluid.
Joints that can bend and straighten but cannot rotate; they restrict motion to one plane.
large solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores sugar for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses.
A ridge on the sternum that lies at the level where the second rib is attached to the sternum; provides a constant and reliable bony landmark on the anterior chest wall.
angle of Louis
A prominent bony mass at the base of the skull behind the ear.
The narrow, cartilaginous lower tip of the sternum.
The part of the nervous system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. These peripheral nerves may be sensory nerves, motor nerves, or connecting nerves.
peripheral nervous system
The smallest branch of an artery leading to the vast network of capillaries.
The area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum; controls functions that are necessary for life, such as respirations.
The part of the nervous system that regulates activities over which there is voluntary control.
somatic nervous system
An angle that is formed by the junction of the spine and the tenth rib.
The principal artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery. It supplies blood to the lower abdominal wall, external genitalia, and legs. It can be palpated in the groin area.
Protein catalysts designed to speed up the rate of specific biochemical reactions.
The 33 bones that make up the spinal column.
The bone on the thumb side of the forearm.
Tissue, largely fat, that lies directly under the dermis and serves as an insulator of the body.
A continuous and painful erection of the penis caused by certain spinal injuries and some diseases.
One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and chest into the heart.
superior vena cava
A muscular dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity. Contraction of the diaphragm (and the chest wall muscles) brings air into the lungs. Relaxation allows air to be expelled from the lungs.
The eye socket, made up of the maxilla and zygoma.
The thick skin covering the cranium, which usually bears hair.
The major artery leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs; it carries oxygen-poor blood.
The supporting bone of the upper arm.
The collarbone; it is lateral to the sternum and medial to the scapula.
Muscle that is attached to bones and usually crosses at least one joint; striated, or voluntary, muscle.
Parts of the body that lie farther from the midline. Also called outer structures.
The position of reference in which the patient stands facing you, arms at the side, with the palms of the hands forward.
muscular distensible tube that connects the uterus with the vulva (the external female genitalia); also called the birth canal.
The 12 vertebrae that lie between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. One pair of ribs is attached to each of the thoracic vertebrae.
The lateral portions on each side of the cranium.
The contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially that of the ventricles.
The major artery in the forearm; it is palpable at the wrist on the thumb side.
The air sacs of the lungs in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
The first part of the large intestine, into which the ileum opens.
The lower part of the back, formed by the lowest five nonfused vertebrae; also called the dorsal spine.
Glands that produce an oily substance called sebum, which discharges along the shafts of the hairs.
The glands that secrete sweat, located in the dermal layer of the skin.
A sac on the undersurface of the liver that collects bile from the liver and discharges it into the duodenum through the common bile duct.
A hard bony prominence that is found in the midline in the lowermost portion of the abdomen.
The artery just posterior to the medial malleolus; supplies blood to the foot.
posterior tibial artery
The wave-like contraction of smooth muscle by which the ureters or other tubular organs propel their contents.
The sum of all the physical and chemical processes of living organisms; the process by which energy is made available for the uses of the organism.
The upper quarter of the sternum.
The brain and spinal cord.
(CNS) Central Nervous System
The rim, or wing, of the pelvic bone.
The shoulder blade.
Structures that are farther from the trunk or nearer to the free end of the extremity.
The chest or rib cage.
Ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestine.
The kneecap; a specialized bone that lies within the tendon of the quadriceps muscle.
The areas between the temporal and occiput regions of the cranium.
A sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transports cellular waste material to the organs of excretion.
he eleventh and twelfth ribs, which do not attach to the sternum through the costal arch.
A thin sheet of fascia that connects the thyroid and cricoid cartilages that make up the larynx.
Muscle that has characteristic stripes, or striations, under the microscope; voluntary, or skeletal, muscle.
The canal that conveys urine from the bladder to outside the body.
Nerves that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body.
The nerves that carry sensations of touch, taste, heat, cold, pain, or other modalities from the body to the central nervous system.
The chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels (the aorta and the two venae cavae).
The proximal portion of the upper extremity, made up of the clavicle, the scapula, and the humerus.
The portion of the digestive tube that encircles the abdomen around the small bowel, consisting of the cecum, the colon, and the rectum. It helps regulate water and eliminate solid waste.
The major vessel in the upper extremity that supplies blood to the arm.
The part of the body, or any body part, nearer to the feet.
A firm prominence of cartilage that forms the upper part of the larynx; the Adam''s apple.
The outer layer of skin, which is made up of cells that are sealed together to form a watertight protective covering for the body.
The serous membrane covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity, completely enclosing a potential space known as the pleural space.
The portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum, consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
A hollow muscular organ that receives blood from the veins and propels it into the arteries.
A large opening at the base of the skull through which the brain connects to the spinal cord.
One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.
The front region of the hand.
The trunk without the head and limbs.
The part of the body, or any body part, nearer to the head.
The circulation of oxygenated blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells'' current needs.
Motion of a limb toward the midline.
The portion of the spinal column consisting of the first seven vertebrae that lie in the neck.
The bony prominences of the pelvis (ilium) at the front on each side of the lower abdomen just below the plane of the umbilicus.
anterior superior iliac spines
An extension of the brain, composed of virtually all the nerves carrying messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It lies inside of, and is protected by, the spinal canal.
The superficial landmarks of the body that serve as guides to the structures that lie beneath them.
The position in which the body is lying face down.
Slow, gasping respiration, sometimes seen in dying patients.
Cells that carry oxygen to the body''s tissues; also called erythrocytes.
red blood cells (RBCs)
The glands that produce saliva to keep the mouth and pharynx moist.
Vertebrae of the lumbar spine.
Muscle that is under direct voluntary control of the brain and can be contracted or relaxed at will; skeletal, or striated, muscle.
The position in which the body is supine with the head lower than the feet.
All the structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing, consisting of the upper and lower airways and their component parts.
The part of the nervous system that regulates functions, such as digestion and sweating, that are not controlled voluntarily.
The complex message and control system that integrates many body functions, including the release of hormones.
Closer to or on the skin.
The fibrous sac that encloses a joint.
A bridge of cartilage that connects the ends of the sixth through tenth ribs with the lower portion of the sternum.
The fine end-divisions of the arterial system that allow contact between cells of the body tissues and the plasma and red blood cells.
A tubular structure that extends vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachea.
The wave of pressure created as the heart contracts and forces blood out the left ventricle and into the major arteries.
The depression on the lateral pelvis where its three component bones join, in which the femoral head fits snugly.
The joint between the wrist and the metacarpal bones; the thumb joint.
The windpipe; the main trunk for air passing to and from the lungs.
The lowermost end of the colon.
A bony prominence on the proximal lateral side of the thigh, just below the hip joint.
The last three or four vertebrae of the spine; the tailbone.
Storage sacs for sperm and seminal fluid, which empty into the urethra at the prostate.
The system that controls virtually all activities of the body, both voluntary and involuntary.
The proximal end of the femur, articulating with the acetabulum to form the hip joint.
Tiny, disk-shaped elements that are much smaller than the cells; they are essential in the initial formation of a blood clot, the mechanism that stops bleeding.
The potential space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura. It is described as "potential" because under normal conditions, the lungs fill this space.