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-a predictor of functional age
-actual competence and performance.
average life expectancy and avg healthy life expectancy
- avg life expectancy - the number of yrs that an individual born in a particular year can expect to live, starting at any given age.
- avg healthy life expectancy - number of yrs a person can expect to live in full health without disease or injury.
activity of daily living (ADLs)
- -after 75 yrs old about 9% have difficulty carrying out ADLs
- -basic self care tasks required to live on one's own, such as bathing, dressing, getting in and out of bed, or eating.
Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
- -after 75 about 17% cannot carry out these tasks.
- -tasks necessary to conduct the business of daily life and also requiring some cognitive competence, such as telephoning, shopping, food prep, housekeeping, and paying bills.
- -the genetic limit to length of life for a person free of external risk factors
- -between 70 and 110 yrs old. 85 is the average age.
- -cloudy areas in the lens, resulting in foggy vision
- -increases tenfold from mid to late adulthood.
- -can cause blindness without surgery
- -when light sensitive cells in the macula, or central region of the retina, break down, older adults may develop macular degeneration.
- -central vision blurs and gradually is lost.
- -leading cause of blindness among older adults.
- -as with cataracts, heredity increases risk.
- -as the immune system ages T cells, which attack antigens, become less effective.
- -in autoimmune response, the immune system is more likely to malfunction and turn against normal body tissues
- -a condition in which breathing ceases for 10 seconds or longer, resulting in many brief awakenings.
- -until age 70 or 80 men experience more sleep disturbances than women.
-array of devices that allow people with disabilties to improve their functioning.
Compression of morbidity
-ideally as life extends, we want the average period of diminished vigor before death to decrease, a public health goal called the compression of morbidity
-genetically influenced declines that affect all members of our species and take place even in the context of overall good health. aka biological aging.
-declines due to hereditary defects and negative environmental influences, such as poor diet, lack of exercise, disease, substance abuse, pollution, and psych stress.
Just because these conditions are related to age, does not mean they are caused by aging. To clarify this distinction experts distinguish between these two...
primary and secondary aging
-involves weakened functioning of diverse organs and body systems, which profoundly intereferes with everyday competence and leaves the older adutl highly vulnerable in the face of an infection, extremely hot or cold weather, or an injury.
Things related to frailty
- -secondary aging plays a larger role in frailty.
- -frail elder is someone who displays wasted muscle mass, weight loss, mobility problems.
- -the most common type, involves deteriorating cartilage on the ends of the bones of frequently used joints.
- -limited to certain joints.
- -aka wear and tear arthritis or degenerative joint disease.
- -usually does not appear until the 40 or 50s.
- -genetic proneness.
- -almost all older adults show some kind but seriousness varies.
- -involves the whole body. an autoimmune response leads to inflammation of connective tissue, particularly the membranes that line the joints, resulting in overall stiffness, inflammation and aching.
- -tissue in the cartilage tends to grow, damaging surrounding ligaments, muscles, and bones. the result is deformed joints and often serious loss of mobility.
- -sometimes other organs such as heart and lungs are affected.
- -refers to a set of disorders occuring almost entirely in old age in which many aspects of thought and behavior are so impaired that everyday activities are disrupted.
- -rate increases with age, over 65. rises sharply after 80.
- -blacks have an elevated risk.
- -about a dozen types of dimentia have been identified.
- -the most common form of dementia, in which structural and chemical brain deterioration is associated with gradual loss of many aspects of thought and behavior.
- -accounts for 60% of all demential cases.
- -when baby boomers reach late adulthood, alzheimers is expected to increase more than 50 percent.
- -about 5% of eldery death involves alheimers.
- -one of two major structural changes in the cerebral cortex
- -appear bundles of twisted threads that are the product of collapsed neural structuers that contain abnormal forms of a protein called tau.
-outside neurons. dense deposits of a deteriorated protein called amyloid, surrounded by clumps of dead nerve and glial cells develop.
2 major structural changes in the cerebral cortex, especially in memory and reasoning areas, associated with Alzheimers?
-neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques
-a series of strokes leaves areas of dead brain cells, producing step by step degeneration of mental ability, with each step occuring abruptly after a stroke.
- -a homelike housing arrangement for seniors who require more care than can be provided at home but less than is usually provided in nursing homes.
- -cost effective alternative to nursing homes
selective optimization with compensation
- -elders who sustain high levels of functioning engage in selective optimization w/ compensation.
- -the narrowing of their goals, they select personally valued activities to optimize or maximize returns from their diminishing energy. they also find new ways to compensate for their losses.
- -memory without conscious awareness
- -automatic form of memory
associative memory deficit
-difficulty creating and retreiving links btwn pieces of info.
- -very long term recall.
- -even though some elders say their long term memory is better, research does not support this claim.
- -refers to remembering to engage in planned actions in the future.
- -opposite of retrospective memory, of things past
- -believed to reach its height in old age.
- -breadth and depth knowledge
- -expertise in the conduct and meaning of life.
-refers to marked acceleration in deterioration of cog. functioning prior to death.