"Political strategy based on advancing power for its own stake" A48.
Advocated by Otto Von Bismark of Germany in 1862. Practical, realistic politics that held that achieving and maintaining power was more important than moral or ideological goals such as justice or freedom.
Risorgimento (The Unification of Italy)
An Italian resurgence that would restore the nation to the position of leadership it had help in Roman times and during the Renaissance. A hope that was believed by the Nationalists after 1848.
Otto von Bismarck
Minister to German president after 1862. Prussian aristocrat that believed in Realpolitik. Tried to help unify Germany. Declared war against Austria in 1866
Count Camillo Cavour
1810-1861. Pronounced economic expansion and sought to raise Piedmont-Sardinia's profile in international relations. Wanted a conservative form of unification and got it with Italian nationhood.
First one started in 1839 due to dispute over drug trade, but mostly highlighted larger issues of sovereignty and economic status in China. Led to other countries taking more from China.
Scramble for Africa
A time when the European powers were rushing to conquor Africa. By 1902 90% of Africa was in European hands.