The transfer of genetic material from one cell to another or from one organism to another.
the material that contains the information that determines the inherited characteristics.
viruses that infect bacteria
a monomer; contains 3 parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base.
when cytosine on one strand pairs with guanine on the opposite strand and adenine with thymine
the loosely coiled DNA strands that let translation and transcription occur.
a type of protein molecule that is found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotes
the process of making an exact copy of DNA.
an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule
found in the nucleus; cytoplasm in ribosomes; has single strands of A-U and G-C bases. Plays a role in protein synthesis.
the base that bonds with Adenine in RNA
a single stranded RNA molecule that carries the instructions from a gene to make protein.
part of the structure of ribosomes. (makes them up along with other proteins)
transfers amino acids to the ribosomes to make a protein.
When DNA acts as a template for the synthesis of RNA.
Each three nucleotide sequence in mRNA that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start or stop signal.
When RNA directs the assembly of proteins.
3 nucleotides on the RNA that are complimentary to the sequence of a codon on mRNA.
changes inthe sequence of genes or DNA molecules.
What did Frederick Griffith discover?
That heat-killed virulent bacterial cells release a hereditary factor that transfers the disease-causing ability to the live harmless cells.
What did Hershey and Chase discover about the role of DNA in bacteriophages?
That DNA is the hereditary molecule in viruses not protein.
DNA is a nucleic acid built of monomers called what?
What are the three parts that make up a nucleotide?
A 5-Carbon Sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogen base.
What scientists are credited with determining the structure of DNA?
James Watson and Francis Crick
What shape is a molecule of DNA?
a double helix
What happens in replication of DNA?
First, enzymes weaken the hydrogen bonds. Next, 2 new strands are formed and are templates. Nucleotides floating inside the cell match up complimentary with the template thus creating 2 new DNA molecules.
How is RNA like DNA?
Can be found in the nucleus; includes Guanine paired with Cytosine bases; both can have single strands.
How is RNA different from DNA?
Can also be found in cytoplasm in ribosomes; uses ribose as a sugar; Adenine cannot bond with thymine in RNA(uses Uracil instead); can only be single-stranded; 3 types: mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA.
Why is transcription so important?
Because DNA can't leave the nucleus because it is too large, therefore mRNA is needed transport the code to the ribosomes and in mRNA and tRNA.
How are codons and anticodons different?
they are opposites because the codons come from the transcribed DNA into RNA and anticodons translate the codons into proteins. (amino acids) (they are complimentary to codons.)
Describe the process of Protein Synthesis. (translation)
mRNA is transcribed.(from DNA); mRNA leaves the nucleus and to ribosomes; mRNA determines which amino acids are needed; tRNA picks up a specific amino acid and matches up with mRNA; amino acids bond to form a chain, thus creating protein.
What is the role of tRNA in translation?
tRNA must pick up a specific amino acid and take it to the ribosome where it can match up with mRNA amino acids for a chain-protein.
change in a gene.
involves changes int he structure of a chromosome or the loss or gain of a chromosome.
a change that occurs within a single gene or other segment of DNA on a chromosome.
when incorrect grouping of remaining codons is caused by loss of a gene.