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Scientific Research Process, steps
1.Identify Problem/Choose Topic
3.Define Objectives and Significance
- Develop Hypothesis/Question
5.Detailed Literature Review
7.Pre-test Design & Research Tools (Piloting)
9.Carry Out Study
10.Process Data Collected
This is a systematic process of data, that involves first identifying the problem, or choosing a topic, reviewing literature on the issue, defining objectives and significance of the study, coming up with a hypothesis/ research question, carrying out detailed literature review, designing a methodology, pre-testing the design and the research tools, organising relevant resources, carrying out the study, analyzing data collected, writing a report, and after drawing conclusion then finally disseminating the findings.
Preliminary Literature Review
A select analysis of existing research relevant to the topic
Helps to understand the problem, avoid duplication and is foundation for future study.
Sources of literature include: research journals, magazines, media, libraries, company journals
Choosing a topic guides?
- Guides the research approach, method and
When choosing a topic, one must take to choose a topic that is?
4.Applies to modern situations
5.Justifiable and Authentic
6.Clear and Concise
9.Reflects current and up to-date issues
10.With least problems
11.One with literature review
12.Distinctly indicate variables to be manipulated
Researchers must brainstorm with and about?
lecturers, colleagues about topics on things, processes, concepts, people and systems
Defining the Problem
The problem should be differentiated from the symptoms by a clear definition.
Defining the problem helps with?
1.Paves way for proper course of action.
2.Develop the hypothesis/question
3.Uncovers nature and boundary of problem
- 4.Guides the researcher in designing a methodology
- sampling method.
What is a problem in research?
A problem is an unsettled issue, discrepancy, gap, a disturbance, a complexity, an uncertainty with a specific variable whose real cause is not known.
The dependent variable is?
The independent variable is?
How do you define a problem?
A researcher should first create a scenario that shows the problem exists-with evidence. Should give evidence of the existence of a problem in the dependant variable, citing sources.
The problem statement could be approached in the following ways.
1.Painting a negative picture off a phenomenon (with evidence).
- *The researcher shows ignorance of
- the causes (independent variables). Evidence given should be from the
2.Painting a positive picture of a phenomenon.Then showing ignorance as to why.
- 3.Evaluation Study: panting a picture of a
- program, scheme, policy, strategy. Then carrying out a study to find out if they are effective or feasible.
- 4.Quoting emerging issues in the media on
- phenomenon, e.g diseases, then using the evidence for study
5.Basic research on daily phenomenon, to find out how and why they happen.
Objectives answer the?
They answer the why of the study; they act as a guide to the researcher.
When drawing objectives one must first?
- Draw general objectives first, then draw
- specific objectives from the general
Where is the research question/hypothesis drawn from?
They are drawn from the specific objectives
Objectives should be?
1.Specific measurable term, clear and concise.
2.Achievable in given time frame and cost.
3.Challenge intellectual capacity of researcher
7.Related to the problem under investigation
When should the research question be used instead of the hypothesis?
When a study does not warrant the use of a hypothesis (Qualitative study.).
What kind of study uses a hypothesis?
When using statistical analysis to arrive at a conclusion for accepting or rejecting a hypothesis (Quantitative studies).
- A major research question is posed, then a series of minor
- questions to answer the objective.
Where is the research question used?
Normally used in surveys and exploratory studies concerned with descriptive answers and finding.
The research questions should be specific and…?
Clear without reference to value judgment. (Good or bad).
For every question in the proposal, what effort will be done to answer each question?
A methodological effort
The proposal reviewer will examine the research question to ascertain what?
The researcher’s comprehension of the subject being researched.
Questions and hypothesis are not normally used in same/one study, if they are, it implies?
Quantitatively testing the hypothesis first, and then descriptively answering the questions in another section.
What is a Hypothesis?
(a) A hypothesis is an expert guess, a statement, an assumption, or a suggestion drawn from data, intuition, and experience put forward as a starting point for reasoning, explanation or exploration of an issue.
(b) It a proposed explanation of a phenomenon.
All research effort that follows the developing of a hypothesis is aimed at?
Approving or disapproving the hypothesis.
Major research hypothesis is restatement of the major research question, only now?
It is a statement between the independent and dependent variable and what is expected to happen under certain conditions.
Difference between project and procedure in research?
Project: testing of stated relationship. Whereas;
Procedure: is the methodology
When does a hypothesis become a proposition?
After it has been empirically proved to be true.
What is a proposition?
This is a statement of a relationship between two concepts that have been empirically verified.
What are several related propositions?
These are theories that explain generally or abstractly the real world.
A concise, well conceptualized hypothesis is cardinal because?
It is the foundation of a research.
Why are hypotheses stated in null form?
Because the statistics used are based on random chance.
Hypotheses should be stated whenever there is basis for?
*That is, when one variable is theoretically related to another variable*
A tested hypothesis is denoted by a value?
A research hypothesis is denoted by a value?
Normally a null hypothesis states that?
There are no differences between groups or no relationship between variables.
Is a null hypothesis negative or positive?
A research hypothesis predicts a………outcome?
Positive or negative outcome.
Types of hypothesis
Consists of only two variables.These could be of associative or causal nature.
Consists of two or more variables.
Associative variables (hypothesis)
Tests a relationship between two variables that have causal effect on another.
Causal variables (hypothesis)
Presupposes a relationship between two or more variable.
An experimental hypothesis could be?
Directional or non-directional in nature.
Directional hypothesis indicates?
How a variable differs from another.
A Directional hypothesis is applied?
- When a researcher has prior knowledge of a possible relationship between two variables of interest.
- *eg. On the job training leads to transfer of skills to the job.*
A non-directional hypothesis indicates?
Does not indicate that a researcher has prior knowledge of a possible relationship between two variables of interest.
Characteristics of a good hypothesis
1. Should be specific
3.Clear concept (in terms of definitions)
4.Should be tested with available techniques
5.Related to an established body
7.Gives specific relationship among variable
What is a research design?
(a) Framework for all data collecting activities.
(b) Plan for specifying methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing data.
A type research design depends on?
It depends on the type/nature of research; economic, time and geographical considerations.
A researcher will be asked to………and………the design?
Explain and justify
What is resource collection?
A thorough preparation of relevant resources before a study is undertaken.
In data collection, a proper setting is created for?
Data collection, tools are applied. The research design guides data collection.
After data collection, the data is?
Compiled, tabulated, analysed, generalizations/inferences drawn, the hypothesis tested then a report is written.