Research Methods: Section Three
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What is a research proposal?
A research proposal is a researcher’s plan of action, his/her mode of organizing and carrying out a study.
Before undertaking a research, a proposal must be?
Submitted and approved.
A research proposal indicates how?
- A research is to be organized, conducted, the rationale for carrying out study, the problem under investigation, a budget, time constraints
- and possible data sources.
A research proposal consists of (Chapter 1)?
2.Background of Study
4.Purpose of Study
5.Objectives of Study
7.Scope of Study
10.Definitions of key Terms
A research proposal consists (Chapter 2)of?
1.Detailed Literature Review
2.Statement of Hypothesis
A research proposal consists (Chapter 3)of?
3.Sample and Sampling Technique Procedure
4.Instruments Validity and Reliability
A research proposal consists of (Appendices)?
1. Research Questionnaire
3.Desire for innovation
A research a plan of action should consist of a clear and…….?
Concise methodology, schedule and a budget.
The purpose of a research proposal is?
1.Basis to solicit funding
2.Basis for convincing research approval committee
3.Guide to the researcher
4.Establish feasibility of a project
The purpose of a research proposal as basis to solicit funding
It is a basis for research funding. Funders use the quality of the proposal to decide whether to fund it or not.
The purpose of a research proposal as basis for convincing research approval committee
The proposal should be quality, the problem relevant and should add to existing body of knowledge.
The purpose of a research proposal as guide to the researcher
Serves as a guide for the research process/effort, it gives direction to the researcher and forces him to think through procedures and potential obstacle.
The purpose of a research proposal to establish feasibility of a project
It helps the researcher to organize his effort, in terms of the amount of times and resources to commit to the project.
The purpose of a research proposal as a means of generating ideas
It helps refine a simple idea to a set of workable concepts within a theoretical/conceptual framework.
The writing style of a research proposal should be?
It should be limited in size (15 pages) yet detailed enough for the reviewer, but not too much to overwhelm a layman. It should be written clearly, simply, logically and coherent.
Contents of a proposal
It consists of chapters 1, 2, 3, an appendix, a budget, schedule, reference and other relevant information.
Background of Study
Gives the known to prepare for the unknown. The conceptual and contextual must be developed from the background.
Background of Study should coherently?
- Indicate the root of the problem, its reach,
- interrelationship among variables and their context.
Examines a topic on the basis of identified variables in a study
Examines the topic in a given setting or context. E.g political, social
Problem Statement should be?
It should be clearly defined or stated. It focuses on the dependent variable and what is wrong with it.
Objectives of Study
These are target/objectives that must be realized through the study, and then gauged at the end for success.
Scope of Study/Delimitation
- The researcher must demarcate the study indicating focus areas in terms of variables, unit of analysis, geographical area and time
- frame. Variables must be clearly stated and chosen period indicated.
The researcher should make a sound argument, justifying the relevance, economic feasibility, viability, adding to the body of knowledge and the benefits of the study to immediate and distant societies.
Geographical location must be defined; sub-parish, county, town and district should be stated. Exact location should be stated with maps if possible.
What is the statement of a problem?
A problem statement is a clear description of the issue(s), it includes a vision, issue statement, and method used to solve the problem.
Detailed literature review (Chapter 2)deals with?
Review of relevant literature, relevant quotation and quoting system.
Statement of the hypothesis/Research question should?
Always correspond with the objectives. It can be substituted by a research question.
The methodology indicates?
How a study is going to be organized and conducted. It is future tensed.
Research Design is?
Specific research design pertinent to study, reflects objectives and problem.
Research Design can be experimental,………?
Non-experimental, qualitative or quantitative.
Measurement or (how to answer the hypothesis/research question) is imperative.
A detailed description of the mode of measuring variable. A researcher must clearly explain how to measure each variable or how to answer each research question.
Operationalising variables is the act?
Of giving clear definitions to variables, converting, quantifying and indicating how they will be measured.
In sampling design, population of interest should be?
Determined/identified and clearly defined.
Random sampling is best applied to what population makeup?
Non-random sampling is best applied to what population makeup?
An appropriate sampling method should reflect?
Type of study, and sound criteria should be justified.
A sample can be probabilistic or………?
Or not depending on the nature of the population or design.
Sample size is determined by?
Population size, time and cost constraints. The bigger the population is, the bigger the sample size.
The sampling criteria should be?
2.Willingness to participate
4.Position in Org
7.Involvement in key issues
Appropriate tools/instruments should be because they?
Elicit proper facts from respondents
List common data collection tools
3.Focus group discussion
Validation of tools should be tested
- Validity and reliability of tools should be tested, to ensure valid and reliable data. It can be done through pre-tests and expert
Anticipated data sources should be stated.
Categories of data sources?
Primary data sources
Mainly from the field, live events
Secondary data sources
Collected from literature review, records on subject of study.
The variables for the study identified and?
Dependent, independent and extraneous variables are identified and stated in this section.
What are extraneous variable?
Independent variables not part of the study. *must be identified*
Why must extraneous variable controlled?
They are controlled to counter their effect on results.
How are extraneous variable controlled?
Triangulation is a process of?
Is the using multiple baselines
Triangulation is aimed at?
Reducing bias and limiting errors.
Triangulation can be in form of?
1.Multiple data sources *more than one person to collect, analyse and interpret findings*
2.Multiple perspectives to draw meaning from
3.Multiple method of data collection *interview, questionnaire*
What is data collecting procedure?
This is a detailed procedure/method of collecting and processing data.
What is unit analysis?
This is defining the unit of analysis as a way of delimitation of a study
Limitations of study
Stating of anticipated limitation or constraints and how they will be tackled.
Reference of literature review, lists?
Appendix with budget of study is?
Of all activities to be undertaken is drawn and included.
An appendix with schedule of activities must?
Every chapter must be on?
A new page
The first paragraph of each chapter is for?
Is for an introduction.
The chapter headings must be?
Defending the dissertation: Vice Voce
This is a cross examination by a panel of experts of the research
Experts examine what, in defending the dissertation: Vice Voce?
Defending the dissertation (Vice Voce) is the first step to?
The vivre may examine?
1.Whether purpose of research is clear
- 2.Literature reviewed (for citations,
3.Details of how study is conducted (Methodology)
- 4.Whether hypothesis is well stated and properly derived from relevant literature review and conceptual and contextual
5.Whether rationale of the study is sound
6.Whether research design is appropriate, explicit and justified.
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