Research Methods: Section Four
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The design is basically?
Structure of the study.
The method is?
The mode of operation in conducting a research.
An experimental research method applies?
Specific experimental designs
A non-experimental research method applies?
A research design is?
A means/plan/approach of obtaining data for a study.
The research design explains?
1. How the study will be organized and implemented.
2.How sampling will be carried out
3. How study will be organized
4.How variable will manipulated and controlled
5.Tools and techniques for data collecting, presenting and analyzing
The design focuses on?
1.Quality and quantity (sampling)
2.Sample size (experimental and control groups)
3.Number of comparison groups
4.Number of treatments/manipulations of the independent variables
5.Sources of subjects/respondents
6.Mode of manipulating /treating subjects.
7.Relevant justification for section criteria
8.Mode of answering questions
9.Tools to be applied in study
10. Study period
Designs are classified basing on?
1.How much a control a researcher can exercise over the variables being manipulated
2.Equivalenceof groups to be manipulated
3.Random assignment of variables into experimental and control groups
4.The possibility of generating empirical findings, with internal and external validity
5. Number of groups included
6.Number of treatments expected
7.Whether there is a post or pre test of the experimental and control groups
Types of designs
Choice of design depends on?
1.Purpose of study
2.Type of study
3.Type of problem identified
4.Nature of variables to be manipulated
5.Availability of relevant infrastructure
6.Skills of researcher
Data collection methods/tools
What is a questionnaire method/tool?
A research tool that is a blank form to be filled in by a researcher, respondent or research assistant.
A questionnaire consists of?
1. Questions (to be answered by respondent)
2.Statements (to be completed by respondent)
Questionnaires may vary in?
Applications of a questionnaire
3.Collection of bio data
Types of questionnaires are categorized on basis of?
1.Dealing with specific or a variety of topics (Simple VS complex)
2.Target audience (teachers, managers)
3.Size of form
4.Response expected: Open, closed or combination
5.Method of administering: mail, computer or self administered.
Methods of administering questionnaire:
Types of data
What is questionnaire construction?
A process of creating a form to be applied in data collection (specific) about a problem.
What are the steps in questionnaire construction?
1.Decide on the data you need from the respondents
2.Decide how to analyse the data (measurement e.g nominal)
3.Decide on appropriate questionnaire
4.Write and review first draft
5.Pre-test and do relevant adjustments
Before designing, be aware of?
2.Data needed, and how to process
3. Arrangement of questions should be in a logical order
The easy questions should come?
First, structured questions are easy to understand. Pilot the test before study
The language should be?
5.Dictionary (Denotative) meaning.
You should ensure that respondents are willing and?
Able to answer
The question order should be?
Types of question format
Presents questions from the general to specific view of events/situations.
Begins by presenting questions from the specific to the general view of events
Combines the funnel and inverted methods
Gives uniform questions through the questionnaire. E.g strongly agree-strongly disagree
Comprises of all the all formats
Types of questions vary according to?
2.Level of information expected
3.Level of knowledge
Question types range from?
1.Open to closed
- to unstructured
3.Primary to tertiary
4.Leading to un-leading
13.Category and quantity/quality
In open questions respondents can?
A variety of ways.
*They have the freedom to answer in an unlimited way. The question can be structured or unstructured.*
They are best applied?
When no possible answer is know by the researcher. Or best for ratio or interval measurements
Difference between structured and unstructured questions
Structured open question limit and guide the respondent, whereas unstructured can be answered in an unlimited way.
These are questions that give specific or alternative ways that a respondent can respond.
Demerits of closed/Dichotomous questions
Difficult to construct, may lead to guessing, leaving out important answers or alternatives.
Merits of closed/Dichotomous questions
Easier to administer, analyse and respond to, they save time and increase response rate.
Dichotomous questions are best applied
When possible answers are known, distinct, discrete and limited in number
Closed questions could be?
Dichotomous or multiple choice
Dichotomous require what type of answers?
Yes or No answers
In multiple choice many answers choices are given but?
Only one choice is made
In dichotomous choices are normally presented on
What is a continuum?
Scale reflecting the degree/importance of a phenomenon.
In a scale question, points are attached to?
A continuum basing on specific criteria
In scale type of question, closed questions are given standard?
Answers that can be applied to compare phenomenon
Merits of scale questions
They are easier to code, analyse and comprehend because of their structured nature.
Scale questions are best for?
Demerits of scale questions
Prone to guessing and misinterpretation
What are scale questions?
These are multiple choice questions that include a scale that a respondent has to react to.
A likert scale shows?
The degree/amount of agreement or disagreement
The likert scale attaches a value to?
Each response in a category ranging from 1-5
Semantic differential scale
A scale is provided between two bipolar words, the respondent chooses a point on the scale that represents his view point.
What are rating scales?
These are questions that give a scale to rate a phenomenon. *E,g poor to excellent*
- These are questions that give a
- scale to rate the importance of a phenomenon
*e.g knowing more than one language is, (a)Extremely important>Not important at all.*
Multiple choice questions are?
The are questions a respondent is given a variety of choices
Word association is?
A question that presents words in turn, then the respondent selects the first word that comes to mind. E.g select a word that comes to mind when you here the word matooke
Advantages of a questionnaire
- 1.It’s in hardcopy form, can be filled for reference and copied into the research
2.Standard and almost uniform questions that can be qualified or processed.
3.Cheap to use (mail)
4. Draws information from dumb, shy, busy as well as redundant people.
5.Can be filled at convenience and then mailed back.
Disadvantages of a questionnaire
1.Is argued to be inadequate to understand some forms of information - i.e. changes of emotions, behavior, feelings etc.
- 2. Limited amount of information
- without explanation
3. Lacks validity
4. There is no way to tell how truthful a respondent is being
- 5. There is no way of telling how much
- thought a respondent has put in
6.The respondent may be forgetful or not thinking within the full context of the situation
7. People may read differently into each question and therefore reply based on their own interpretation of the question - i.e. what is 'good' to someone may be 'poor' to someone else, therefore there is a level of subjectivity that is not acknowledged
8.There is a level of researcher imposition, meaning that when developing the questionnaire, the researcher is making their own decisions and assumptions as to what is and is not important...therefore they may be missing something that is of importance
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