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2013-07-14 13:25:13

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  1. What are the 4 subfields of anthropology?
    • biological anthropology
    • cultural anthropology
    • archaeology
    • linguistic anthropology
  2. What is another name for biological anthropology?
    Physical anthropology
  3. What is biological anthropology?
    the study of the biological and biocultura facets of humans and their relatives (the non human primates)
  4. What is a holistic approach?
    the practice of drawing on all the sub disciplines of anthropology, as well as other disciplines, to attempt to answer questions about humans
  5. What is a comparative approach?
    the practice of comparing features across entities/cultures/organisms to elucidate similarities or differences
  6. What is "a verifiable, observable truth" called?
    a fact
  7. Define "hypothesis"
    a testable explanation for the observed fact
  8. Define "theory"
    a set of supported hypothesises
  9. Name: "taking control of information presented to you and examining it"
    critical thinking
  10. What is paleoanthropology?
    the study of fossil humans and human relatives
  11. Name: "material evidence of past life on this planet"
  12. Name: "interrelationships between living organisms and their environments"
  13. Name: "mammalian order to which humans belong"
  14. Define anthropology
    the study of all aspects of the human experience
  15. Name: "patterns of behavior human societies exhibit in their families, relationships, religions, laws, moral codes, songs, art, business and everyday interactions
  16. Name: "the focused study of a culture or aspects of a culture
  17. Name: "the comparative study of many cultures"
  18. The _____ ______ is a way of asking questions about ourselves and the world around us, and all scientists use it.
    scientific method
  19. What are the steps in the scientific method?
    • observe a fact
    • construct a hypothesis
    • test the hypothesis
    • (if wrong, construct a new hypothesis until right)
    • publish your work
    • have multiple scientists test your hypothesis which becomes a theory if right
  20. What is a "primatologist"
    researcher who studies primates
  21. What is a paradigm?
    a predominant way  of thinking about ideas
  22. What is "essentialism"?
    the notion of ideal types
  23. What is "The Great Chain of Being"?
    Nation that all forms of life on the planet can be ranked in order from the most important to the least important. (predominant in western cultures)
  24. What is the heliocentric theory?
    the idea that the earth revolves around the sun
  25. The heliocentric theory is associated with which scientist?
    Nicholaus Copernicus
  26. What is the atomic theory?
    states that all matter consists of small, unchangeable atomic particles
  27. The atomic theory is associated with which scientist?
    Galileo Galilei
  28. Who introduced the precursor to the modern scientific method?
    Francis Bacon
  29. Which scientist is associated with the universal theory of gravity?
    Isaac Newton
  30. Which scientists are associated with the DNA double helix structure?
    Watson and Crick
  31. Which scientist is known as the "father of taxonomy"?
    Carolus Linnaeus
  32. What is taxonomy?
    naming and classification of organisms based on morphological similarities and differences
  33. What is "catastrophism"?
    the belief that great catastrophes regularly wipe out much of life on earth
  34. Define strata
    layers of the earth
  35. What is stratigraphy?
    the study of the layering of the earth's sediments
  36. What is "adaptation"?
    change in response to environmental challenges
  37. What scientist is associated with uniformitarianism?
    Charles Lyell
  38. What is uniformitarianism?
    the doctrine that geological processes operating in the present have also operated the same way in the past and will continue to do so in the future
  39. What scientist is associated with discovering inheritance of acquired characteristics within species?
  40. What scientist is associated with his theory of descent from a single ancestor?
    Eramus Darwin
  41. Which scientist is associated with catastrophism?
    Georges Cuvier
  42. Which scientist is associated with excessive fecundity?
    Thomas Malthus
  43. What is reproductive success?
    a measure of the number of surviving offspring an organism has
  44. Name an observed example of evolution
    moths in industrial areas
  45. Name: "the process by which the better fit variants in a population become over-represented over time"
    natural selection
  46. Name: "capable of being passed to off spring biologically (through reproduction)"
  47. name: "having the set of heritable traits that are best suited to existing and reproducing in a given environment"
  48. name: "habitat or ecological role filled by an organism; the way in which an organism 'makes a living'"
  49. name: "the least complex path"
  50. Name a few misconceptions about evolution
    • bigger is better
    • newer is better
    • natural selection always works
    • we evolved from monkeys
  51. Which scientists are associated with natural selection?
    Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
  52. What was the "Scopes Monkey Trial"?
    Teacher John Scopes was put on trial for teaching evolution in 1952. The Tennessee Board of Education made it illegal to teach evolution in high school
  53. What is a phenotype?
    observable, measurable characteristics of an organism
  54. Define morphology
    the internal and external form and structure of an organism
  55. Define phylogeny
    the evolutionary history of a group of organisms
  56. Traits or structures shared by all or most species in a group are called ______
    ancestral traits
  57. Characteristics that are unique to a species are called _____
  58. Name: "the study of the basic structure and processes of DNA"
  59. Define genotype
    an individual's "genetic makeup"
  60. What does it mean if a person is homozygous?
    Alleles inherited from both parents are the same (TT or tt)
  61. what does heterozygous mean?
    Alleles inherited from parents are different alleles (Tt)
  62. Which scientist is associated with principles of heredity?
    Gregor Mendel
  63. Mendel's Law of _____ ______ states that the segregation of any pair of chromosomes does not influence the segregation of any other pair of chromosomes
    Law of Independent Assortment
  64. What does TDF gene stand for?
    Testes determining factor
  65. What is a karyotype?
    the chromosomal makeup of an individual
  66. What is an autosomal monosomy?
    a single copy of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two
  67. An abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell is known as an ______
  68. Name: "means an extra copy of a chromosome"
    autosomal trisomy
  69. Name: "the random failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis"
  70. ______ is where a piece of one chromosome transfers to another chromosome
  71. Name an example of sex chromosome monosomy
    Turner's syndrome (X0)
  72. What is a sex chromosomal monosomy?
    where a person is lacking a sex chromosome. Either the second X or Y       (X0)
  73. What is a sex chrome trisomy?
    • When there is an extra sex chromosome
    • (XXX, XXY, XYY)
  74. Sex chromosome trisomy XXY is also called
    Klinefeller's syndrome
  75. Sex chromosome trisomy XYY is also called
    Superman's syndrome
  76. What is a characteristic of a autosomal dominant disease?
    it never skips a generation
  77. What are some examples of autosomal dominant disorders?
    Marfan Syndrome, Huntington's Disease and Achondroplastic dwarfism
  78. What is a characteristic of a autosomal recessive disease?
    • a great majority of affected individuals have normal parents   OR
    • all the children of two affected parents are affected
  79. What are some examples of autosomal recessive disorders?
    cystic fibrosis and Tay Sachs Disease
  80. What are some characteristics of sex linked dominant diseases?
    Affected males with normal wives transmitting the disease to their daughters only
  81. What is an example of a sex linked dominant disorder?
    hypophosphatemia (a type of vitamin d-resistant rickets)
  82. What are some characteristics of sex linked recessive diseases?
    larger number of affected males than affected females.

    affected males do not come from affected fathers but from carrier mothers who may also have affected brothers, fathers or uncles
  83. What are some examples of sex linked recessive disorders?
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, some forms of colorblindness and androgen insensitivity syndrome
  84. Describe the concept of testability/falsifiability
    it is the potential for hypothesis to be rejected
  85. What are some questions of biological anthropology?
    • What are humans? What is our place in the biological world?
    • Where have we come from? What does the history of our species look like?
    • How are humans around the world like or unlike one another?
  86. What are a couple areas of study within biological anthropology?
    • Osteology (study of skeletal remains)
    • Bioarcheology
    • Growth and Development
  87. How is Evolution a fact and a theory?
    • It is a fact that living organisms have changed in the past and continue to change
    • it is a theory because it explains how the change occurs
  88. What are the two rules of adaptation?
    • Adaptations are specific to a particular environment
    • Not all aspects of behavior or biology are adaptive
  89. What is variation?
    Differences among individuals or populations
  90. Name: "change in populations over time"
  91. These are the characteristics of what?

    All living things show variation
    Advantageous traits increase survival rate
    Genetic traits can be passed on
    Populations evolve
    Natural selection
  92. What is Lamarckian Evolution?
    a "will toward complexity" meaning everything works towards being more complex

    complex forms arose from simpler ones
  93. Diploid cells have __ chromosomes
  94. Haploid cells have __ chromosomes
  95. Somatic cells and diploid cells are reproduced through _____
  96. Gametes are ___ cells
  97. Sex cells and haploid cells are reproduced through
  98. What are the two types of organisms?
    Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  99. What is a prokaryote
    • cell that has no nucleus
    • a single celled organism
    • ex - bacteria
  100. What is a eukaryote?
    multi cellular organism that contains a nucleus
  101. Define nucleotide bases and name them
    the four chemical bases that make up the core portion of DNA

    adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine
  102. What is a "triplet"?
    three nucleotide sequence in which the DNA's code is written
  103. Name: "the building block of organic life"
  104. Name: "the process by which the nucleotide 'message' is taken from a gene, transcribed, and translated into a protein"
    Protein synthesis
  105. What is transcription?
    copying the DNA message to RNA
  106. What is translation?
    converting the mRNA message into a protein
  107. tRNA or transfer RNA is what?
    a form of RNA that brings amino acids to the ribosome
  108. What is meiosis?
    the production of gametes (haploid cells)
  109. Define recombination
    shuffling of maternal and paternal chromosomes during meiosis
  110. Define mitosis
    the process of cell division and replication
  111. Name: "a molecule similar to DNA that is responsible for taking the message from the DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosome in the cytoplasm and facilitating translation into a protein"
    Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  112. name: "the form of RNA that takes the transcribed DNA message to the ribosome"
    messenger RNA (mRNA)
  113. Name: "a three nucleotide sequence in which the DNA's triplet code is written onto the mRNA"
  114. Name: "complex structures that house the supercoiled DNA in the nucleus"
  115. What are amino acids
    building blocks of proteins
  116. What is a gene?
    segment of DNA that contains the sequence for a protein
  117. What is a mutation?
    a change to the nucleotide sequence in the DNA
  118. Name: "the chemical compound, found in most living organisms, that contains the basic information for the structure of life"
    deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  119. Name: "The process by which new species arrive"
  120. What are the two types of chromosomes?
    • Autosomal (1-22)
    • Sex chromosome (23)
  121. What type of chromosomes govern most physical characteristics?
  122. Which types of chromosome determines the sex of an organism
    sex chromosome
  123. What make up the "rungs" in the DNA structure?
    nitrogenous base pairs
  124. What makes up the "backbone"  of the DNA structure?
    sugar and phosphates
  125. What does DNA do?
    • -replication
    • -protein synthesis
    • -regulation
  126. Name the protein functions (4)
    • transportation
    • structural components
    • enzymes
    • hormones
  127. Describe DNA replication
    • occurs prior to cell division
    • DNA molecule unwinds and unzips
    • bonds break, nucleotides exposed
    • parent nucleotide is the template
    • free floating nucleotides attach
    • ends up with two exact copies
  128. What happens during DNA regulation
    • it starts and stops replication and transcription
    • monitors, proofreads and repairs DNA
  129. What is "crossing over"
    when homologous chromosomes swap genes
  130. 1 sperm + 1 ovum =
  131. What are some problems study heredity in animals?
    • need large samples
    • some traits = multiple genes
    • some traits are hard to measure/quantify
  132. What are some problems studying heredity in humans?
    • long life spans
    • small families
    • can't (ethically) control mating
  133. _____ is when multiple genes code for a single trait
  134. _____ is when one gene may affect multiple traits
  135. ___ are hemizygous because they cannot be carriers of disease
  136. _____ genes are those where one gene alters another
  137. ______ genes initiate or block other genes
  138. ______ ______ is when an allele is not expressed (ex diabetes)
    incomplete penetrance
  139. Name: "expressed by only one sex"
    ex - a beard
    sex linked trait
  140. Which scientist is associated with modern synthesis?
    Theodosius Dobzhansky
  141. What is the Hardy Weinberg Equation?
  142. What causes speciation?
    • reproductive isolation
    • genetic divergence
  143. What scientists are associated with punctuated equilibrium?
    Gould and Eldredge
  144. Which scientists are associated with the equilibrium model?
    Hardy and Weinberg
  145. Consanguineous means
    non random mating
  146. Assortative mating refers to
    genetic drift
  147. The name for when a population bottlenecks, "the Bottleneck Effect"
    Founder Effect
  148. Name the two steps of evolution
    • step 1 - variation
    • step 2 - natural selection
  149. What is adaptive radiation?
    expansion by a single group of organisms into a diverse array of forms
  150. Name: "rapid biological changes in organisms followed by long, relatively static periods during which little biological change occurs"
    Punctuated Equilibrium
  151. Name: "species defined on the basis of fossil evidence"
  152. name: "a situation in which selection favors a heterozygotic state for a given locus and thus maintains both the recessive and the dominant alleles in a population, even if one or both are deleterious in the homozygous state"
    balanced polyorphism
  153. What is "gene flow"?
    movement of alleles within and between populations
  154. What is "genetic drift"?
    random changes in allele frequencies across generations
  155. Name: "all the DNA in the human species"
    human genome
  156. Name: "study of DNA including all associated molecules, chemicals, and evolutionary patterns"
  157. Name: "having 46 chromosomes, arranged in 23 pairs"
  158. Name: "the process by which DNA copies itself"
  159. Name: "the process of cell division and replication"
  160. Name: "The production of gametes (haploid cells)"
  161. Name: "having 23 single chromosomes, half the genetic complement; found in the gametes"
  162. name: "the shuffling of maternal and paternal chromosomes during meiosis"
  163. Name: "homologous, or sister, chromosomes exchange segments"
    crossing over
  164. Name: "Site of protein synthesis"
  165. Name: "a variant sequence of nucleotides in a gene; a form of a gene"
  166. Name: "the place on a chromosome where a specific gene occurs"
  167. Name: "the observation that each locus sorts independently (in general)"
    independent assortment
  168. "
  169. Name: "the situation wherein many genes combine to have one effect"
  170. Name: "the situation wherein in one gene has many effects"
  171. Name: "the notion that much DNA may act as reserve variation for future selective pressures"
  172. As much as ___% of the human DNA does not appear to have active genes
  173. Name: "all the alleles within a population"
    gene pool
  174. Name: "Cluster of individuals of the same species who share a common geographical area and find their mates or often in their own cluster than in others"
  175. Name: "movement of alleles within and between populations"
    gene flow
  176. Name: "movement of alleles in and out of populations"
  177. Name: "pattern of mating in which individuals mate preferentially with certain others"
    non random mating
  178. Name: "mating amongst close genetic relatives"
  179. Name: "evolutionary process in which a small group of individuals account for all the genetic variation in a large population"
    Founder Effect
  180. Name: "dramatic reduction in the size of a population such that the genetic diversity in the population is substantially curtailed"
  181. Name: "trait that is currently serving a function other than that for which it originally arose"
  182. Name: "the factors in the body that work in combination with the genes and proteins to affect phenotypes"
    epigenetic system
  183. Name: "the system of imitation and learning by which behavior passes from generation to generation"
    behavioral inheritance system
  184. Name: "An approach that includes the development of biological and behavioral systems as a core part of evolutionary process"
    Developmental Systems Theory
  185. Name: "the modification of niches by organisms and the mutual interactions between organisms and environments"
    Niche construction theory
  186. Name: "the process by which new species arise"
  187. Name: "a group of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups"
    biological species
  188. Name: "mode of speciation that involves a separation and isolation of populations of the parent species"
    allopatric speciation
  189. Name: "slow accumulation of small changes in population such that over time enough change has occurred to result in a speciation event"
    phyletic gradualism
  190. Name: "type of evolutionary process whereby species come to share phenotypic characteristics due to recent common ancestry"
    parallel evolution
  191. Name: "type of evolutionary process whereby species come to share phenotypic characteristics due to similar environmental pressures"
    convergent evolution
  192. the genetic basis of any trait is determined by an allele from
    each parent
  193. What is Mendel's Law of Segregation?
    Alleles occur in pairs and when gametes are formed, only one of each pair from each parent is passed on.
  194. Name a few examples of Mendelian Traits
    • Hair whorl pattern
    • hairline
    • dimples
    • earlobe attachment
    • Darwin's point
    • tongue rolling
    • tongue folding
  195. What is "blending"?
    The (wrong) assumption that inheritance involved blending together of genetic information in the egg and sperm before Mendel discovered his theory of inheritance.
  196. Name: "a chart of ancestors and descendants that geneticists, with their knowledge of Mendelian inheritance, use to discover the manner in which a disorder is inherited."
    a pedigree
  197. Most sex linked diseases are carried on the __ chomosome
  198. Name: " Separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment"
    Cell membrane
  199. What is a somatic cell?
    Any biological cell forming the body of an organism
  200. Name: "a cell structure that contains hereditary information, or DNA, and controls cellular growth and reproduction" (found in eukaryotic cells)
  201. ______ are known as the "powerhouses of cells." They convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell.
  202. Name: "the creation of an ovum (egg cell) by meiosis"
  203. Name: "the specific type of meiosis that forms sperm"
  204. A _____ ______ is a gene that determines whether or not other genes will be expressed in an organism.
    Regulatory gene
  205. Name: "Large family of similar genes that direct the formation of many body structures during early embryotic development"
    Homeobox genes
  206. Name: "change within a gene in which one base pair in the DNA sequence is altered"
    Point mutation
  207. ____ ______ are frequently the result of mistakes made during DNA replication and is one in which a nucleotide is added, deleted, or replaced by another
    Point Mutation
  208. Name: " a genetic mutation when an extra base is added to the DNA before or after replication"
  209. Name: "a type of mutation where one or more nucleotides are deleted from the DNA strand"
  210. Name: "a theory (popular in the 18th century and now discredited) that an individual develops by simple enlargement of a tiny fully formed organism (a homunculus) that exists in the germ cell"
    theory of Preformation
  211. Name: "a theory (popular in the 18th century and now discredited) that an individual develops by simple enlargement of a tiny fully formed organism (a homunculus) that exists in the germ cell"
  212. Name: "A theory of heredity proposed by Charles Darwin in which gemmules containing hereditary information from every part of the body coalesce in the gonads and are incorporated into the reproductive cells."
  213. Name: "A hypothetical particle of heredity postulated to be the mediating factor in the production of new cells in the theory of pangenesis"
  214. What is codominance?
    • codominance is seen when two different alleles are present, but instead of having the ability to mask the expression of the other, the products of both are expressed in the phenotype
    • ex - AB blood type
  215. Name: " a term that meant all species remained unchanged throughout the history of the earth"
    Fixity of species
  216. In population genetics, ______ selection is a mode of natural selection in which a single phenotype is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction.
  217. Name: "type of natural selection in which genetic diversity decreases as the population stabilizes on a particular trait value."
    Stabilitizing selection
    • 1. diversifying selection
    • 2. stabilitizing selection
    • 3. Directional selection
  218. Name: " intentional breeding for certain traits, or combination of traits"
    artificial selection
  219. Name: "mathematized population genetics + evolutionary theory = genetics +origin of species"
    Modern synthesis
  220. Name: "the end of an organism or of a group of organisms, normally a species."
  221. Name: "evolution within a lineage."
  222. Name: "evolution that results in the splitting of a lineage"
  223. Name: " a condition in which a person has one abnormal allele of the hemoglobin beta gene (is heterozygous), but does not display the severe symptoms of sickle cell disease that occur in a person who has two copies of that allele (is homozygous). Those who are heterozygous for the sickle cell allele produce both normal and abnormal hemoglobin (the two alleles are co-dominant). So the individuals with sickle-cell trait (heterozygotes) have a selective advantage in some environments"
    Sickle Cell Allele
  224. Name: "evolution on a grand scale—what we see when we look at the over-arching history of life"
  225. What is the biological species concept?
    Organisms are classified in the same species if they are potentially capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
  226. Name: "The environment may impose an external barrier to reproduction, such as a river or mountain range,     between two incipient species but that external barrier alone will not make them separate, full-fledged species.If internal barriers to gene flow do not evolve, individuals from the two parts of the population will freely interbreed if they come back into contact. Whatever genetic differences may have evolved will disappear as their genes mix back together."
    Reproductive isolation
  227. Name the Hardy Weinberg Assumptions (5)
    • mating is random
    • no mutation
    • no natural selection
    • no migration
    • infinitely large population