EMT-Chapter 19- Seizure and Syncope

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EMT-Chapter 19- Seizure and Syncope
2013-07-13 20:46:53
emt seizure syncope

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  1. Seizure
    A sudden or temporary alteration in the mental status caused by massive electrical discharge in a group of nerve cells in the brain.
  2. Convulsion
    Generalized jerky muscle movement.
  3. Epilepsy
    A medical disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
  4. Status Epilepticus
    • A seizure lasting longer than 5 minutes or consecutive seizures with no period of responsiveness between them
    • Must provide aggressive airway ventilation
  5. Generalized Tonic-clonic Seizure
    • A common seizure that produces unresponsiveness and a generalized jerky muscle activity. Also known as grand mal seizure
    • Typically involves both cerebral hemispheres and the reticular activating system(wake/sleep)
  6. Aura
    An unusual sensory sensation that may precede a seizure episode by hours or only a few seconds.
  7. Signs and symptoms of generalized tonic-clonis seizure and stages
    • Aura
    • Loss of consciousness
    • Tonic phase(muscle rigidity)
    • Hypertonic phase
    • Clonic phase(convulsion)
    • Postictal state-the recovery period that follows the clonic phase of a generalized seizure. In a postictal state the patient only commonly appears weak, exhausted, and disoriented and progressively improves.
  8. Assessing patients without any response
    • Maintain airway-do not insert OPA, the patient might become conscious again
    • Provide PPV if the patient is severely cyanotic, the seizure has lasted for more than 5min from the time of onset, or breathing doesn't become adequate following the episode
    • Note the skin temperature and color
    • Ensure presence of a pulse
  9. Syncope
    • A brief Period of unresponsiveness caused by a lack of blood flow to the brain.
    • The difference between syncope and seizure is that syncope:
    • 1. Usually begins in a standing position
    • 2. The patient remembers feeling faint or light-headed
    • 3. The patient almost becomes responsive almost immediately after becoming supine
    • 4. The skin is usually pale and moist