EMT-Chapter 19- Seizure and Syncope
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A sudden or temporary alteration in the mental status caused by massive electrical discharge in a group of nerve cells in the brain.
Generalized jerky muscle movement.
A medical disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
- A seizure lasting longer than 5 minutes or consecutive seizures with no period of responsiveness between them
- Must provide aggressive airway ventilation
Generalized Tonic-clonic Seizure
- A common seizure that produces unresponsiveness and a generalized jerky muscle activity. Also known as grand mal seizure
- Typically involves both cerebral hemispheres and the reticular activating system(wake/sleep)
An unusual sensory sensation that may precede a seizure episode by hours or only a few seconds.
Signs and symptoms of generalized tonic-clonis seizure and stages
- Loss of consciousness
- Tonic phase(muscle rigidity)
- Hypertonic phase
- Clonic phase(convulsion)
- Postictal state-the recovery period that follows the clonic phase of a generalized seizure. In a postictal state the patient only commonly appears weak, exhausted, and disoriented and progressively improves.
Assessing patients without any response
- Maintain airway-do not insert OPA, the patient might become conscious again
- Provide PPV if the patient is severely cyanotic, the seizure has lasted for more than 5min from the time of onset, or breathing doesn't become adequate following the episode
- Note the skin temperature and color
- Ensure presence of a pulse
- A brief Period of unresponsiveness caused by a lack of blood flow to the brain.
- The difference between syncope and seizure is that syncope:
- 1. Usually begins in a standing position
- 2. The patient remembers feeling faint or light-headed
- 3. The patient almost becomes responsive almost immediately after becoming supine
- 4. The skin is usually pale and moist
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