Psychology 101

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torrespeterytania
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Psychology 101
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2013-07-14 01:33:38
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Psychology 101 Midterm
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Psychology 101 Midterm Study Guide
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  1. What is Psychology?
    • The scientific study of behavior and mental
    • processes
  2. The Goals of Psychology
    • Psychologists seek to
    • 1. observe,
    • 2. describe,
    • 3. explain,
    • 4. predict, and
    • 5. control behavior to better understand and explain them
  3. •Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920)
    –Leipzig, Germany

    –established first psychology research laboratory

    –applied laboratory techniques to study of the mind
  4. Edward Titchener (1867–1927) Wundt’s student, professor at Cornell University
    • –developed approach called structuralism—involving introspection
    • and studying basic components of conscious experiences.

    • •focused
    • on basic sensory and perceptual processes

    • •measured
    • reaction times
  5. •William James (1842–1910)
    –started psychology at Harvard in 1870s

    –opposed Wundt and Titchener’s approach

    –his ideas shaped school of functionalism – also influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment
  6. •Sigmund Freud
    (1856–1939)
    –Austrian physician that focused on illness

    –psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders
  7. Psychoanalysis
    • personality theory and form of psychotherapy
    • that emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior
  8. Behaviorism
    emphasizes the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning
  9. Humanistic
    emphasizes each person’s unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction
  10. •Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
    –Behaviorism grew out of his work with dogs associating a neutral stimulus with an automatic behavior
  11. John B. Watson
    –psychologists should study overt behavior
  12. B. F. Skinner
    –American psychologist at Harvard

    –studied learning and effect of reinforcement

    –behaviorism
  13. How do neurons communicate
    Through electrical impulses
  14. Name the 3 types of neurons
    • Sensory (input)
    • Motor (output)
    • Interneurons
  15. Name the cell body
    Soma
  16. In neurons where is information and metabolic function taking place
    The cell body (soma)
  17. Biological Perspective
    • •Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior
    • •Focus may be at various levels
    • –individual neurons
    • –areas of the brain
    • –specific functions like eating, emotion, or learning
  18. Psychodynamic Perspective
    • •View of behavior based on experience treating patients
    • •Psychoanalytic approach  (Sigmund Freud)
    • –both a method of treatment and a theory of
    • the mind
    • –behavior reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influences
    • –drives and urges within the unconscious
    • component of mind influence thought and behavior
    • –early childhood experiences shape
    • unconscious motivations
  19. Examples of a __________ would be the use of a “sugar pill” instead of real medication or tonic water instead of an alcoholic beverage. However, the individual must believe that he or she is experiencing the real thing
    A.placebo 
    B.bias 
    C.confederate
    D.treatment 
    A.placebo
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. b) Provide a real-life example that demonstrates the effects of these two systems in humans.
    • The sympathetic nervous system arouses the body to expend energy. It help us to react in an emergency (fight or flight) by increasing oxygen level to our muscle and brain and dilating our pupils increasing our field of vision so we can react faster. We all at one time or another had that one embarrassing moment in-front of a group where our mouth gets dry and we just want to run away or how when we are scare we automatically jump or run away that's our sympathetic nervous system reaction.
    • The parasympathetic nervous system calms the body to conserve and maintain energy. Our parasympathetic system allows us to regain composure after excitement.
  21. Behaviorism is to learning theory as Gestalt psychology is to 
    A.habit 
    B.adaptation to the environment
    C.perception
    D.psychotherapy
    C.perception
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Prior to becoming the first female president of the APA, Mary Whiton Calkins 
    A.All of these are true
    B.was offered but declined a doctorate at Radcliff college for women
    C.was denied a doctorate at Harvard University because of  her gender 
    D.attended Harvard as a guest because they did not accept female students 
    A.All of these are true
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Whose research on the negative effects of school segregation on African American children was cited by the United States Supreme Court when it overturned the “separate but equal” school doctrine in 1954?
     A.The Watsons
     B.The Rumbaughs 
    C.The Sherifs
    D.The Clarks
    D.The Clarks
  24. Wilhelm Wundt
    • Established structuralism and broke down consciousness into subjective feelings and objective sensations
    • Father of psychology
  25. William James
    established functionalism and studied relationships between experience and behavior
  26. Functionalism
    mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment
  27. Sigmund Freud
    Consulted with patients to help them discover an insight into their unconscious; developed psychoanalysis
  28. Psychoanalysis
    unconscious motives and internal conflicts
  29. B.F. Skinner
    established reinforcement; showed that lab animals demonstrated they're capable of learning complex behavior
  30. Structuralism
    the field concerned with discovering the basic elements of consciousness
  31. Functionalism
    the field concerned with how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment
  32. Wilhelm Wundt established structuralism; he broke down
    consciousness into its two basic elements- subjective feelings and objective sensations.
  33. William James
    established functionalism; James disagreed with the functionalists and believed that consciousness couldn't be broken down as structuralists believed because it was a continuous stream of consciousness.
  34. Melatonin is manufacture by the
    Pineal Gland
  35. In response to bright morning light
    The suprachiasmatic nucleus causes the pinaela gland to decrease the production of melatonin
  36. Melatonin production is suppressed by
    exposure to sunlight and bright lights
  37. The rhythmic electrical patterns of the brain are called
    Brain waves
  38. Drowsy yet wakeful state is associated with ______brain wave
    Alpha
  39. Rhythmical breathing and slight twitches in arms and legs is what stage of NREM
    Stage 2 NREM
  40. Sleepers heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate drop to their lowest levels what is the sleep stage
    Stage 4 NREM
  41. What stages are referred to as slow wave sleep
    Combination of Stage 3NREM and Stage 4 NREM
  42. Brain activity comprised of delta brain waves is part of what sleep stage
    Stage 4 NREM
  43. Sleep walking occurs during what sleep stage
    Stage 4 NREM sleep
  44. Late night phone call of which you have no memory most likely occurred during
    Stage 4 NREM
  45. Dream usually takes place during
    REM
  46. REM sleep is typically accompanied by
    Physiological arousal, brain activity, REM
  47. On average each complete cycle through the stage of NREM sleep and REM sleep last about
    90 minutes
  48. During a normal night's sleep a person typically experiences about _____ of NREM and REM sleep
    5 Cycles
  49. central nervous system
    Brain and Spinal Cord are parts of what nervous system division? hint: CNS
  50. peripheral nervous system
    pinal nerves that extend to the face, arms and legs are part of what nervous system division? hint: PNS
  51. sympathetic division
    name the nervous system division known for "fight or flight".
  52. parasympathetic division
    the nervous system division known for "rest and digest".
  53. what CNS feature is known to control "vital signs" such as heart-rate and breathing?
    brain stem
  54. name the part of the brain that is responsible for balance and control.
    cerebellum
  55. what brain feature allows the left and right hemispheres to "talk" to each other?
    corpus collosum
  56. which lobe of the brain is associated with executive functions and motor commands?
    frontal lobe
  57. which lobe of the brain is associated with vision?
    occipital lobe
  58. which lobe of the brain is associated with hearing, memory, and speech comprehension?
    temporal lobe
  59. which lobe of the brain integrates vision, touch, and motor information?
    parietal lobe
  60. what specific cortex of the frontal lobe is associated with voluntary muscle commands?
    motor cortex
  61. What condition is described as impaired ability to comprehend speech
    Weirnicke's aphasia
  62. What specific cortex of the Temporal lobe is associated with hearing?
    auditory cortex
  63. What specific cortex of the Parietal lobe is associated with body sensation of touch?
    somato sensory cortex
  64. What system of the brain is associated with emotions and memories?
    limbic system
  65. What part of the brain is associated with the body's hormones, and regulates hunger?
    hypothalamus
  66. What part of the brain acts like a "traffic cop" and routes information to and from the cerebrum and spinal cord.
    thalamus
  67. What part of the limbic system is associated with forming new memories, fear conditioning, and spatial memory?
    hippocampus
  68. What part of the limbic system is associated with emotion related to excitement, arousal, fear, and social cues.
    amygdala
  69. What is the name for nervous system cells that are the brain's "communicators"?
    neuron
  70. Where in a neuron cell body is genetic information stored?
    nucleus
  71. What part of a neuron receives signals from other neurons?
    dendrites
  72. What part of a neuron carries signals to other neurons?
    axon
  73. What kind of nervous system cells support neurons by forming the myelin sheath, removing debris, responding to injury, and also form the blood-brain barrier?
    glial cells
  74. What part of a neuron contains synaptic vesicles that hold neurotransmitters?
    axon terminal
  75. What is the term for the molecules that neurons use to communicate with each other?
    neurotransmitter
  76. What term applies to the communication transfer arrangement between presynaptic & postsynaptic membranes separated by a gap or cleft?
    synapse
  77. What term applies to the "Gap" that separates presynaptic & postsynaptic neuron membranes?
    synaptic cleft
  78. Goals of Psychology
    to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior/mental process.
  79. Hypothesis
    A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
  80. Theory
    An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
  81. Psychology
    The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  82. Evolutionary Psychology
    the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selectionCharles Darwin
  83. Founder of Behaviorism
    John B. Watson
  84. B. F. Skinner
    behaviorism; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism's reinforcement history; worked with pigeons
  85. William James
    founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; wrote first psychology textbook - The Principles of Psychology1842-1910 How humans and animals use mental processes.
  86. Father of modern psychology, established 1st psychology lab in Leipzip, Germany in 1879. Created introspection.
    Wilhelm Wundt
  87. Edward Titchener
    Student of Wilhelm Wundt; founder of Structuralist school of psychology. Student of Wundt
  88. What is refractory period
    The resting period for repolarization
  89. Which part of the neuron receives messages from other cells?--------------------
    A. axon,
    B. dendrite,
    C. soma,
    D. myelin
    B. dendrite,
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. When the action potential reaches the end of the axon terminals, it causes the release of _____.
    A. negatively charged ions that inhibit the next cell
    B. an electrical spark that sets off the next neuron
    C. positively charged ions that excite the next cell
    D. neurotransmitters that excite or inhibit the next cell
    D. neurotransmitters that excite or inhibit the next cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. Receiving neurons have special _____ that fit the shape of certain molecules.
    a. synaptic vesicles,
     b. gaps,
    c. receptor sites, 
    d. branches
    c. receptor sites, (Lock and Key)
  92. Which of the following is associated with sleep, mood, and appetite?
    A. GABA,
    B. endorphin
    C. acetylcholine,
    D. serotonin,
    D. serotonin,
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. What are synaptic Vesicles
    They hold all chemical Neural Trensmitter
  94. Classical conditioning
    involves learning to make an involuntary response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex.
  95. A(n) _____ is a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response.
    unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
  96. A(n) _____ is an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.
    unconditioned response (UCR)
  97. Since Pavlov's bell did not normally produce salivation, it was the _____ before any conditioning took place.
    neutral stimulus (NS)
  98. The repeated pairing of the NS and the UCS is usually called _____.
    acquisition
  99. In Watson's experiment with "Little Albert," the unconditioned stimulus was _____.
    A. the fear of the rat 
    B. the white rat 
    C. the loud noise 
    D. the fear of the noise
    C. the loud noise
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. unconditioned stimulus is
    one that unconditionally, naturally and automatically triggers a response
  101. _____ is the kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior.
    Operant conditioning
  102. A reinforcer that satisfies a basic need like hunger is called a _____.
    primary reinforcer
  103. _____ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas _____ is an example of a secondary reinforcer.
    A. A gold star; candy
    B. Food; a drink
    C. A candy bar; a gold star
    D. A gold star; money
    C. A candy bar; a gold star
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. _____ occurs when a reinforcer is provided for each and every correct response.
    Continuous reinforcement
  105. What approach might suggest that forgetting to pick his mother up at the airport was Henry's unconscious was of saying that he did not welcome her visit?
    Psychoanalytic
  106. What historical event created a demand for clinicians that was far greater that the supply?
    World War 2
  107. The tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways is known as?
    Ethnocentrism
  108. Heritability
    the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
  109. neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
    Motor Neurons
  110. Action Potential
    a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
  111. Resting Potential
    the potential difference between the two sides of the membrane of a nerve cell when the cell is not conducting an impulse
  112. Plasticity
    The brains ability to modify itself after some types of injury or illness
  113. "Little Brain"
    Cerebellum; The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem. It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance
  114. Gender Identity
    How a person views himself or herself in terms of gender
  115. Sensory Neurons function ?
    Sensory neurons carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
  116. Chunking is
    organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
  117. a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times is called ?
    Narcolepsy
  118. Food intake is regulated by the
    hypothalamus
  119. Excitatory release of what hormone causes contractions
    ACH (Acetylcholine)
  120. Describe Antagonist Drugs
    Poorly fit the receptors and block the NT (Neurotransmitters)
  121. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 3.
    Love and belongingness
  122. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 4.
    Esteem
  123. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
    Neurotransmitters that regulate pain perceptions
  124. Acetylcholine (Ach)
    •Found in neuromuscular junctions

    •Involved in muscle movements

    •Involved in learning and memory
  125. uses of Acetylcholine
    •Botulin, an extremely lethal substance produced by a bacteria, blocks the release of acetylcholine from motor neurons, causing muscle paralysis.
  126. Alzheimer’s Disease
    • •Deterioration of memory, reasoning, and
    • language skills



    •Symptoms may be due a to loss of ACh neurons
  127. Excitatory message
    • message—increases the likelihood that the
    • postsynaptic neuron will activate
  128. Inhibitory message
    • decreases the likelihood that the
    • postsynaptic neuron will activate
  129. Types of Neurotransmitters
    •Acetylcholine

    •Dopamine

    •Serotonin

    •Norepinephrine

    •GABA

    •Endorphins
  130. Cigarettes—nicotine works on
    •ACh receptors

    • –can artificially stimulate skeletal
    • muscles, leading to slight trembling movements
  131. Cause of Parkinson's Disease
    •Results from loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra
  132. Parkinson’s Disease
    •Symptoms include:

    –difficulty starting and stopping voluntary movements

    –tremors at rest

    –stooped posture

    –rigidity

    poor balance
  133. Serotonin
    •Involved in sleep

    •Involved in depression

    • Prozac works by keeping serotonin in the synapse longer, giving
    • it more time to exert an effect
  134. Norepinephrine
    •Arousal



    •“Fight or flight” response
  135. GABA
    •Inhibition of brain activity

    • •Huntington’s disease involves loss of
    • neurons in striatum that use GABA

    –Symptoms:

    • •jerky,
    • involuntary movements

    • •mental
    • deterioration
  136. Pituitary gland
    • attached to the base of the brain, hormones
    • affect the function of other glands
  137. Goals of Psychology:
    •Describe

    •Explain

    •Predict

    •Control

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