A period of time in which scientific advances were made.
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France’s National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution.
An assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France.
A prison in Paris, France mobbed by angry attackers searching for gunpowder and arms.
July 14, 1789
Storming of the Bastille.
In the first half of the 19th century, a European who completely rejected change.
In the first half of the 19th century, a European—usually a wealthy landowner or noble—who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe.
In the first half of the 19th century, a European who wanted some changes in the government, but not as many as the radicals.
In the first half of the 19th century, a European—usually a middleclass business leader or merchant—who wanted to give more political power to elected parliaments.
The hereditary right of a monarch to rule.
Congress of Vienna
A series of meetings in 1814-1815, during which the European leaders sought to establish a long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon.
A conflict between Britain and China, lasting from 1839 to 1842, over Britain’s opium trade in China, won by Britain.
Divine Right Monarchy
The idea that monarchs are God’s representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
Napoleon’s policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Britain’s economy.
In Marxist theory, the group of workers who would overthrow the czar and come to rule Russia.
In Marxist theory, the middleclass “haves” or employers.
Factors of Production
The resources—including land, labor, and capital—that are needed to produce goods and services.
The idea that government should not interfere with or regulate industries and businesses.
An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
An economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
"White Man's Burden"
A poem written by Rudyard Kipling in 1899 expressing the role of imperializing nations to westernize the savage native populations.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially.
The belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation, rather than to a king or empire.
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war.
A conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort.
Treaty of Versailles
The peace treaty signed by Germany and the Allied powers after WWI.
League of Nations
An international association formed after WWI with the goal of keeping peace among nations.
Payments for war damages.
Government control over every aspect of public and private life.
An economic system in which all means of production—land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses—are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally.
A political movement that promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a dictatorial one-party rule.
One of the local representative councils formed in Russia after the downfall of Czar Nicholas II.
“The Leader”—title given to Benito Mussolini while he held power in Italy.
The republic that was established in Germany in 1919 and ended in 1933, with president Paul von Hindenburg.
“The Leader”—nickname given to Adolf Hitler as the leader of the Nazi Party.
“My Struggle”—a book written by Adolf Hitler during imprisonment, in which he set forth his beliefs and goals for Germany.
An agreement in which nations promise not to attack one another.
The making of concessions to an aggressor in order to avoid war.
“Living Space”—the additional territory that, according to Hitler, Germany needed because it was overcrowded.
“Lightning War”—a form of warfare in which surprise attacks with fast-moving airplanes are followed by massive attacks with infantry forces.
A mass slaughter of Jews and other civilians, carried out by the Nazi government of Germany before and during WWII.
The state of diplomatic hostility between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. in the decades following WWII.
Bataan Death March
A forced march of more than 50 miles up the Bataan Peninsula led by the Japanese over the Filipinos, causing thousands of casualties.
A U.S. program of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after WWII.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization—a defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European Nations, the U.S. and Canada.
A country that is formally independent, but is being controlled by a more powerful country.
A military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and seven Eastern European countries.
A Soviet policy of openness to the free flow of ideas and information, introduced in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev.
A restructuring of the Soviet economy to permit more local decision making, begun by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985.
A Polish labor union that during the 1980s became the main force of opposition to Communist rule in Poland.
A South African policy of complete legal separation of the races, including the banning of all social contact between blacks and whites.
A movement founded in the 1890s to promote the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
The idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine while protecting the “rights of existing non-Jewish communities”.
Camp David Accords
The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
The Palestine Liberation Organization—an organization dedicated to the establishment of an independent state for Palestinians in the Middle East.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries—declared a restriction of trade on oil in the 1970s.
A group of producers who act together to fix prices, output, or conditions of sale.
The North American Free Trade Agreement—called for the gradual elimination of tariffs and trade restrictions in North America.
A policy of murder and other acts of brutality by which Serbs hoped to eliminate Bosnia’s Muslim population.
A conservative Islamic group that took control of Afghanistan after the U.S.S.R. withdrew its troops.