Externship Meds and Uses

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Externship Meds and Uses
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Externship Meds and Uses
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  1. Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
    • Ther. Class.
    • antipyretics
    • nonopioid
    • analgesics



    Indications



    • ·       
    • PO: Rect: Treatment of:

    • o   Mild
    • pain,

    o   Fever.

    • ·       
    • IV: Treatment
    • of:

    • o   Mild to
    • moderate pain,

    • o   Moderate
    • to severe pain with opioid analgesics,

    o   Fever.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins that may serve as
    • mediators of pain and fever, primarily in the CNS.

    • ·       
    • Has no significant anti-inflammatory properties or GI toxicity.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Analgesia.

    • ·       
    • Antipyresis.
  2. Advair (combination of fluticasone and salmeterol)
    • Fluticasone – anti inflammatory (steroidal)  ((decreases frequency/severity of asthma
    • attacks))

    Salmeterol – bronchodilator (dilates the bronchioles)
  3. Albuterol (Proventil)
    Indications



    • ·       
    • Used as a bronchodilator to control and prevent reversible airway
    • obstruction caused by asthma or COPD.

    • ·       
    • Inhaln: Used as a
    • quick-relief agent for acute bronchospasm and for prevention of
    • exercise-induced bronchospasm.

    • ·       
    • PO: Used as a
    • long-term control agent in patients with chronic/persistent bronchospasm.
  4. Amlodipine (Norvasc)
    Indications



    • Alone or with other agents in the management of hypertension,
    • angina pectoris, and vasospastic (Prinzmetal's) angina.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Systemic vasodilation resulting in decreased BP.

    • ·       
    • Coronary vasodilation resulting in decreased frequency and
    • severity of attacks of angina.
  5. Aquaphor
    (from internet)

    • Aquaphor® Healing Ointment protects
    • skin to help enhance the natural healing process.  Non-irritating and
    • fragrance-free, it is dermatologist recommended for:


    • cracked, dry or chafed skin; and chapped lips
    • minor cuts and burns
    • sensitive skin
    • skin irritations from laser treatments and radiation
    • therapy
  6. Aspirin
    Indications



    • ·       
    • Inflammatory disorders including:

    • o   Rheumatoid
    • arthritis,

    o   Osteoarthritis.

    • ·       
    • Mild to moderate pain.

    • ·       
    • Fever.

    • ·       
    • Prophylaxis of transient ischemic attacks and MI.

    Unlabeled Use(s):

    Adjunctive treatment of Kawasaki disease.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Produce analgesia and reduce inflammation and fever by inhibiting
    • the production of prostaglandins.

    • ·       
    • Decreases platelet aggregation.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Analgesia.

    • ·       
    • Reduction of inflammation.

    • ·       
    • Reduction of fever.

    • ·       
    • Decreased incidence of transient ischemic attacks and MI.
  7. Atenolol (tenormin)
    • Pharm. Class.
    • beta
    • blockers



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Management of hypertension.

    • ·       
    • Management of angina pectoris.

    • ·       
    • Prevention of MI.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Decreased BP and heart rate.

    • ·       
    • Decreased frequency of attacks of angina pectoris.

    • ·       
    • Prevention of MI.
  8. Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
    • Ther. Class.
    • lipid-lowering agents

    • Pharm. Class.
    • hmg coa reductase inhibitors



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Adjunctive management of primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed
    • dyslipidemia.

    • ·       
    • Primary prevention of coronary heart disease (myocardial
    • infarction, stroke, angina, and coronary revascularization) in asymptomatic
    • patients with increased total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and
    • decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Lowering of total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Slightly
    • increases HDL cholesterol.

    • ·       
    • Reduction of lipids/cholesterol reduces the risk of myocardial
    • infarction and stroke sequelae.

    • ·       
    • Slows the progression of coronary atherosclerosis with resultant
    • decrease in coronary heart disease–related events.
  9. Benazepril (Lotensin):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antihypertensives

    • Pharm. Class.
    • ace inhibitors



    Indications



    • Alone or with other agents in
    • the management of hypertension.



    Action



    • Angiotensin-converting enzyme
    • (ACE) inhibitors block the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor
    • angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors also prevent the degradation of bradykinin and
    • other vasodilatory prostaglandins. ACE inhibitors also ↑ plasma renin levels and ↓ aldosterone levels. Net result is systemic
    • vasodilation.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Lowering of BP in patients
    • with hypertension.
  10. Benzonatate (Tessalon)
    • antitussives,    
    • relief of nonproductive cough due to minor throat or bronchial irritation
    • from inhaled irritants or colds
  11. Calcium Acetate (PhosLo)
    • mineral electrolyte replacements supplements,     Control of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage
    • renal disease
  12. Calcium Carbonate (Rolaids, Tums, …)
    • mineral electrolyte replacements supplements,     Treatment and prevention of hypocalcemia,
    • Adjunct in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Relief of acid
    • indigestion or heartburn, Treatment of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal
    • disease.
  13. Calcitriol:
    • Pharm. Class.
    • fat soluble vitamins



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Management of hypocalcemia in patients undergoing chronic renal
    • dialysis (IV and PO).

    • ·       
    • Treatment of hypocalcemia in patients with hypoparathyroidism or pseudohypoparathyroidism
    • (PO only).

    • ·       
    • Management of secondary hyperparathyroidism and resulting
    • metabolic bone disease in predialysis patients with moderate to severe chronic
    • kidney disease (CCr 15–55 mL/min) (PO only).

    Unlabeled Use(s):

    • ·       
    • Rickets.

    • ·       
    • Management of hypocalcemia in premature infants.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Calcitriol is the
    • active form of vitamin D.

    • ·       
    • Promotes the absorption of calcium and decreases parathyroid
    • hormone concentrations.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Treatment and prevention of deficiency states, particularly bone
    • manifestations.

    • ·       
    • Improved calcium and phosphorous homeostasis in patients with
    • chronic kidney disease.
  14. Captopril (capoten)
    • Ther. Class.
    • antihypertensives

    • Pharm. Class.
    • ace inhibitors



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Alone or with other agents in the management of hypertension.

    • ·       
    • Management of heart failure.

    • ·       
    • Reduction of risk of death, heart failure-related
    • hospitalizations, and development of overt heart failure following myocardial
    • infarction.

    • ·       
    • Treatment of diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type 1 diabetes
    • mellitus and retinopathy.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Lowering of BP in patients with hypertension.

    • ·       
    • Improved survival and reduced symptoms in patients with heart
    • failure.

    • ·       
    • Improved survival and reduced development of overt heart failure
    • after myocardial infarction.

    • ·       
    • Decreased progression of diabetic nephropathy with decreased need
    • for transplantation or dialysis.
  15. Carisoprodol (Soma):
    • Ther. Class.
    • skeletal
    • muscle relaxants (centrally
    • acting)

    • Controlled Substance
    • Schedule: IV



    Indications
























    • Adjunct to rest and physical
    • therapy in the treatment of muscle spasm associated with acute painful
    • musculoskeletal conditions.



    Action






    • Skeletal muscle relaxation,
    • probably due to CNS depression.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    Skeletal muscle relaxation.
  16. Carvedilol (Coreg)
    • Ther. Class.
    • antihypertensives

    • Pharm. Class.
    • beta
    • blockers



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Hypertension.

    • ·       
    • HF (ischemic or cardiomyopathic) with digoxin, diuretics, and ACE
    • inhibitors.

    • ·       
    • Left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Decreased heart rate and BP.

    • ·       
    • Improved cardiac output, slowing of the progression of HF and
    • decreased risk of death.
  17. Cetirizine (Zyrtec)
    • Ther. Class.
    • allergy, cold and cough remedies
    • antihistamines

    • Pharm. Class.
    • piperazines (peripherally selective)



    Indications



    • Relief of allergic symptoms
    • caused by histamine release including:

    • ·       
    • Seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis,

    • ·       
    • Chronic urticaria.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Antagonizes the effects of histamine at H1-receptor
    • sites; does not bind to or inactivate histamine.

    • ·       
    • Anticholinergic effects are minimal and sedation is dose related.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Decreased symptoms of
    • histamine excess (sneezing, rhinorrhea, ocular tearing and redness, pruritus).
  18. Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3 .. inactive)
    • Ther. Class.
    • vitamins

    • Pharm. Class.
    • fat soluble vitamins



    Indications



    • Treatment or prevention of
    • vitamin D deficiency.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Requires activation in the liver and kidneys to create the active
    • form of vitamin D3 (calcitriol).

    • ·       
    • Promotes the intestinal absorption of dietary calcium.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Treatment and prevention of
    • deficiency states, particularly bone manifestations.
  19. Clonazepam (Klonopin):
    • Ther. Class.
    • anticonvulsants

    • Pharm. Class.
    • benzodiazepines

    • Controlled Substance
    • Schedule: IV



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Prophylaxis of:

    • o   Petit
    • mal,

    o   Lennox-Gastaut,

    o   Akinetic,

    • o   Myoclonic
    • seizures.

    • ·       
    • Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia.

    Unlabeled Use(s):

    • ·       
    • Uncontrolled leg movements during sleep.

    • ·       
    • Neuralgias.

    • ·       
    • Infantile spasms.

    • ·       
    • Sedation.

    • ·       
    • Adjunct management of acute mania, acute psychosis, or insomnia.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Anticonvulsant effects may be due to presynaptic inhibition.

    • ·       
    • Produces sedative effects in the CNS, probably by stimulating
    • inhibitory GABA receptors.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Prevention of seizures.

    • ·       
    • Decreased manifestations of panic disorder.
  20. Clopidogrel (Plavix)
    • Ther. Class.
    • antiplatelet
    • agents

    • Pharm. Class.
    • platelet aggregation inhibitors



    Indications
























    • Reduction of atherosclerotic
    • events (MI, stroke, vascular death) in patients at risk for such events
    • including recent MI, acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina/non–Q-wave MI),
    • stroke, or peripheral vascular disease.



    Action






    • Inhibits platelet aggregation
    • by irreversibly inhibiting the binding of ATP to platelet receptors.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Decreased occurrence of
    • atherosclerotic events in patients at risk.
  21. Coumadin
    • Ther. Class.
    • anticoagulants

    • Pharm. Class.
    • coumarins



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Prophylaxis and treatment of:

    • o   Venous
    • thrombosis,

    • o   Pulmonary
    • embolism,

    • o   Atrial
    • fibrillation with embolization.

    • ·       
    • Management of myocardial infarction:

    • o   Decreases
    • risk of death,

    • o   Decreases
    • risk of subsequent MI,

    • o   Decreases
    • risk of future thromboembolic events.

    • ·       
    • Prevention of thrombus formation and embolization after prosthetic
    • valve placement.

    • ·       
    • Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Prevention of thromboembolic events.
  22. Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril):
    • Ther. Class.
    • skeletal
    • muscle relaxants (centrally
    • acting)



    Indications
























    • Management of acute painful
    • musculoskeletal conditions associated with muscle spasm.

    Unlabeled Use(s):

    Management of fibromyalgia.



    Action






    • Reduces tonic somatic muscle
    • activity at the level of the brainstem. Structurally similar to tricyclic
    • antidepressants.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Reduction in muscle spasm and
    • hyperactivity without loss of function.
  23. Dexamethasone (Decadron)
    • Anti inflammatories steroidal,    
    • Used systematically and locally in a wide variety of chronic diseases
    • including inflammatory, allergic, hematologic, endocrine, neoplastic,
    • dermatologic, autoimmune disorders, management of cerebral edema, diagnostic
    • agent in adrenal disorders
  24. Dextromethorphan-guaifenesin (Mucinex)
    dextromethorphan is an antitussive, and guaifenesin is an expectorant
  25. Digoxin (Lanoxin)
    • Ther. Class.
    • antiarrhythmics
    • inotropics

    • Pharm. Class.
    • digitalis glycosides



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Heart failure.

    • ·       
    • Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter (slows ventricular rate).

    • ·       
    • Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Increases the force of myocardial contraction.

    • ·       
    • Prolongs refractory period of the AV node.

    • ·       
    • Decreases conduction through the SA and AV nodes.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Increased cardiac output
    • (positive inotropic effect) and slowing of the heart rate (negative
    • chronotropic effect).
  26. Docusate (Colace)
    • Ther. Class.
    • laxatives

    • Pharm. Class.
    • stool softeners



    Indications



    • ·       
    • PO: Prevention
    • of constipation (in patients who should avoid straining, such as after MI or
    • rectal surgery).

    • ·       
    • Rect: Used as
    • enema to soften fecal impaction.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Promotes incorporation of water into stool, resulting in softer
    • fecal mass.

    • ·       
    • May also promote electrolyte and water secretion into the colon.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Softening and passage of
    • stool.
  27. Donepezil (Aricept)
    • Ther. Class.
    • anti-Alzheimers's agents

    • Pharm. Class.
    • cholinergics (cholinesterase inhibitors)



    Indications



    • Mild, moderate, or severe dementia associated with Alzheimer's
    • disease.



    Action



    • Inhibits acetylcholinesterase thus improving cholinergic
    • function by making more acetylcholine available.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • May temporarily lessen some of the dementia associated with
    • Alzheimer's disease.

    • ·       
    • Enhances cognition.

    • ·       
    • Does not cure the disease.
  28. Enoxaparin (Lovenox
    anticoagulants,    

    • Prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) (deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or
    • pulmonary embolism (PE)) in surgical or medical patients.

    • Treatment of DVT with or without PE (with warfarin).

    • Prevention of ischemic complications (with aspirin) from unstable angina and
    • non-ST-segment-elevation MI.

    • Treatment of acute ST-segment-elevation MI (with thrombolytics or percutaneous coronary
    • intervention).
  29. Esomeprazole (Nexium)
    proton pump inhibitors

    • • PO, IV:
    • GERD/erosive esophagitis (IV therapy should only be used if PO therapy is not
    • possible/appropriate).

    • • PO:
    • Hypersecretory conditions, including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

    • • PO:
    • With amoxicillin and clarithromycin to eradicate Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer disease or history
    • of duodenal ulcer disease.

    • • PO:
    • Decrease risk of gastric ulcer during continuous NSAID therapy.
  30. Ferrous Sulfate (feosol):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antianemics

    • Pharm. Class.
    • iron supplements



    Indications



    • PO: Treatment
    • & prevention iron deficiency anemia.



    Action



    • ·       
    • An essential mineral found in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and many
    • enzymes.

    • ·       
    • Enters the bloodstream and is transported to the organs of the
    • reticuloendothelial system (liver, spleen, bone marrow) where it becomes part
    • of iron stores.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Resolution or prevention of iron
    • deficiency anemia.
  31. Fluoxetine (Prozac)
    antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    • Major depressive disorder.

    • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).

    • Bulimia nervosa.

    • Panic disorder.

    • • Depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (when
    • used with olanzapine).

    • Treatment-resistant depression (when used with olanzapine).

    • • Sarafem:
    • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

    • Unlabelled Use(s): 
    • Anorexia nervosa:

    » ADHD,

    » Diabetic neuropathy,

    » Fibromyalgia,

    » Obesity,

    » Raynaud's phenomenon,

    » Social anxiety disorder (social phobia),

    » Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
  32. Folic Acid
    water soluble vitamins

    • Prevention and treatment of megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias.

    • Given during pregnancy to promote normal fetal development.
  33. Furosemide (Lasix)
    • Ther. Class.
    • diuretics

    • Pharm. Class.
    • loop diuretics



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Edema due to heart failure, hepatic impairment or renal disease.

    • ·       
    • Hypertension.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Inhibits the reabsorption of sodium and chloride from the loop of
    • Henle and distal renal tubule.

    • ·       
    • Increases renal excretion of water, sodium, chloride, magnesium,
    • potassium, and calcium.

    • ·       
    • Effectiveness persists in impaired renal function.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Diuresis and subsequent mobilization of excess fluid (edema,
    • pleural effusions).

    • ·       
    • Decreased BP.
  34. Gabapentin (Gralise or Horizant or Neurontin)
    • Ther. Class.
    • analgesic adjuncts, therapeutic
    • anticonvulsants
    • mood stablilizers



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Partial seizures (adjunct treatment) (immediate-release only).

    • ·       
    • Post-herpetic neuralgia (immediate-release and Gralise only).

    • ·       
    • Restless legs syndrome (Horizant only).

    Unlabeled Use(s):

    • ·       
    • Neuropathic pain.

    • ·       
    • Prevention of migraine headache.

    • ·       
    • Bipolar disorder.

    • ·       
    • Anxiety.

    • ·       
    • Diabetic peripheral neuropathy.



    Action



    • Mechanism of action is not
    • known. May affect transport of amino acids across and stabilize neuronal
    • membranes.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Decreased incidence of seizures.

    • ·       
    • Decreased post-herpetic pain.

    • ·       
    • Decreased leg restlessness.
  35. Glipizide (glucotrol)
    • Ther. Class.
    • antidiabetics

    • Pharm. Class.
    • sulfonylureas



    Indications



    • PO: Controls of blood sugar
    • in type 2 diabetes mellitus when diet therapy fails. Requires some pancreatic
    • function.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Lowers blood sugar by stimulating the release of insulin from the
    • pancreas and increasing the sensitivity to insulin at receptor sites.

    • ·       
    • May also decrease hepatic glucose production.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Lowering of blood sugar in
    • diabetic patients.
  36. Guaifenesin (Mucinex)
    • Ther. Class.
    • allergy, cold and cough remedies
    • expectorant



    Indications



    Coughs associated with viral upper respiratory tract infections.



    Action



    • Reduces viscosity of tenacious secretions by increasing
    • respiratory tract fluid.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    Mobilization and subsequent expectoration of mucus.
  37. Heparin – anticoagulants, antithrombotics
    • Prophylaxis and treatment of various thromboembolic disorders including:

    • »
    • Venous thromboembolism,

    • »
    • Pulmonary emboli,

    • » Atrial
    • fibrillation with embolization,

    • »
    • Acute and chronic consumptive coagulopathies,

    • »
    • Peripheral arterial thromboembolism.

    • • Used
    • in very low doses (10–100 units) to maintain patency of IV catheters (heparin flush).
  38. Hydralazine (Apresoline):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antihypertensives

    • Pharm. Class.
    • vasodilators



    Indications
























    • Moderate to severe hypertension (with a
    • diuretic).

    Unlabeled Use(s):

    • HF unresponsive to conventional therapy
    • with digoxin and diuretics.



    Action






    • Direct-acting peripheral arteriolar
    • vasodilator.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Lowering of BP in hypertensive patients
    • and decreased afterload in patients with HF.
  39. Hydrochlorothiazide (I think this is also called HCTZ):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antihypertensives
    • diuretics

    • Pharm. Class.
    • thiazide diuretics



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Management of mild to moderate hypertension.

    • ·       
    • Treatment of edema associated with:

    o   HF,

    • o   Renal
    • dysfunction,

    o   Cirrhosis,

    • o   Glucocorticoid
    • therapy,

    • o   Estrogen
    • therapy.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Increases excretion of sodium and water by inhibiting sodium
    • reabsorption in the distal tubule.

    • ·       
    • Promotes excretion of chloride, potassium, hydrogen, magnesium,
    • phosphate, calcium and bicarbonate.

    • ·       
    • May produce arteriolar dilation.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Lowering of BP in hypertensive patients
    • and diuresis with mobilization of edema.
  40. Hydrocodone:
    • Ther. Class.
    • allergy, cold and cough remedies (antitussive)
    • opioid
    • analgesics

    • Pharm. Class.
    • opioid agonists nonopioid analgesic combinations

    Controlled Substance Schedule: III(in combination)

    • For information on the acetaminophen and
    • ibuprofen components of these formulations, see the acetaminophen and ibuprofen
    • monographs



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Used mainly in combination with nonopioid analgesics
    • (acetaminophen/ibuprofen) in the management of moderate to severe pain.

    • ·       
    • Antitussive (usually in combination products with decongestants).



    Action



    • Bind to opiate receptors in the CNS.
    • Alter the perception of and response to painful stimuli while producing
    • generalized CNS depression:

    • ·       
    • Suppress the cough reflex via a direct central action.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Decrease in severity of moderate pain.

    • ·       
    • Suppression of the cough reflex.
  41. Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
    • allergy, cold and cough remedies (antitussives), opioid analgesics,
    • opioid agonists,     Moderate to severe
    • pain (alone and in combination with nonopioid analgesics); extended release
    • product for opioid-tolerant patients requiring around-the-clock management of
    • persistent pain.  It is an antitussive in
    • lower doses.
  42. Ibprophen (Advil, Motrin)
    • antipyretics, antirheumatics, nonopioid analgesics,
    • nonsteroidal anti inflammatory agents,    
    • IV used to treat mild to moderate pain / fever,  PO used to treat inflammatory disorders
    • including rheumatoid arthritis (including juvenile) and osteoarthritis,
    • dysmenorrhea
  43. Lisinopril (Prinivil or Zestril):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antihypertensives

    • Pharm. Class.
    • ace inhibitors



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Alone or with other agents in the management of hypertension.

    • ·       
    • Management of heart failure.

    • ·       
    • Reduction of risk of death or development of heart failure after
    • myocardial infarction.



    Action



    • Angiotensin-converting enzyme
    • (ACE) inhibitors block the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor
    • angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors also prevent the degradation of bradykinin and
    • other vasodilatory prostaglandins. ACE inhibitors also ↑ plasma renin levels and ↓ aldosterone levels. Net result is systemic
    • vasodilation.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Lowering of BP in hypertensive patients.

    • ·       
    • Increased survival and decreased symptoms in patients with heart
    • failure.

    • ·       
    • Increased survival after myocardial infarction.
  44. Loratadeen (Claritin)
    • antihistamines,     Relief of
    • symptoms of seasonal allergies,    
    • Management of chronic idiopathic uticaria,     Management of hives
  45. Imodium - loperamide 2 mg + simethicone 125 mg (otc)
    Loperamide – antidiarrheals

                                         Adjunctive therapy of acute diarrhea.

    • Chronic diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

    • Decreases the volume of ileostomy drainage.

                Simethicone – antiflatulant

    •                                     Relief of painful symptoms of
    • excess gas in the GI tract that may occur

    • postoperatively
    • or as a consequence of:

    • » Air
    • swallowing,

    • »
    • Dyspepsia,

    • »
    • Peptic ulcer,

    • »
    • Diverticulitis.
  46. Ipratropium (Atrovent)
    anticholinergics

    • • Inhaln:
    • Maintenance therapy of reversible airway obstruction due to COPD, including
    • chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    • • Intranasal:
    • Rhinorrhea associated with allergic and nonallergic perennial rhinitis (0.03% solution)
    • or the common cold (0.06% solution).

    • Unlabelled Use(s): 
    • Inhaln:
    • Adjunctive management of bronchospasm caused by asthma.
  47. Lactulose: (this is a syrup)
    • Ther. Class.
    • laxatives

    • Pharm. Class.
    • osmotics



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Treatment of chronic constipation.

    • ·       
    • Adjunct in the management of portal-systemic (hepatic)
    • encephalopathy (PSE).



    Action



    • ·       
    • Increases water content and softens the stool.

    • ·       
    • Lowers the pH of the colon, which inhibits the diffusion of
    • ammonia from the colon into the blood, thereby reducing blood ammonia levels.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Relief of constipation.

    • ·       
    • Decreased blood ammonia levels with improved mental status in PSE.
  48. Lanthanum Carbonate (Fosrenol):
    • Ther. Class.
    • hypophosphatemics

    • Pharm. Class.
    • phosphate binders



    Indications



    • Reduction of serum phosphate levels associated with end-stage
    • renal disease.



    Action



    • Dissociates in the upper GI tract forming lanthanate ions, which
    • form an insoluble complex with phosphate.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    Decreased serum phosphate levels.
  49. Levetiracetam (keppra):
    • Ther. Class.
    • anticonvulsants

    • Pharm. Class.
    • pyrrolidines



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Partial onset seizures (adjunct).

    • ·       
    • Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (adjunct)
    • (immediate-release and injection only).

    • ·       
    • Myoclonic seizures in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
    • (adjunct) (immediate-release and injection only).



    Action



    • Appears to inhibit burst
    • firing without affecting normal neuronal excitability and may selectively
    • prevent hypersynchronization of epileptiform burst firing and propagation of
    • seizure activity.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Decreased incidence and
    • severity of seizures.
  50. Levofloxacin (Levaquin):
    anti infectives

    • • PO, IV:
    • Treatment of the following bacterial infections:

    • » Urinary
    • tract infections, including cystitis, pyelonephritis, and prostatitis,

    • »
    • Respiratory tract infections, including acute sinusitis, acute exacerbations of
    • chronic bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and nosocomial pneumonia,

    • »
    • Uncomplicated and complicated skin and skin structure infections.

    • Post-exposure treatment of inhalational anthrax.
  51. Lidocaine Topical (5% patch)
    • Ther. class.
    • anesthetics topical local
    • antiarrhythmics
    • (class IB) 

    • • IV:
    • Ventricular arrhythmias.

    • • IM:
    • Self-injected or when IV unavailable (during transport to hospital facilities).

    • • Local:
    • Infiltration/mucosal/topical anesthetic.

    • • Patch: Pain
    • due to post-herpetic neuralgia.
  52. Losartan (Cozaar):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antihypertensives

    • Pharm. Class.
    • angiotensin II receptor antagonists



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Alone or with other agents in the management of hypertension.

    • ·       
    • Treatment of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2
    • diabetes.

    • ·       
    • Prevention of stroke in patients with hypertension and left
    • ventricular hypertrophy.



    Action



    • Blocks the vasoconstrictor
    • and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II at various receptor sites,
    • including vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal glands.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Lowering of BP in hypertensive patients.

    • ·       
    • Decreased progression of diabetic nephropathy.

    • ·       
    • Decreased incidence of stroke in patients with hypertension and
    • left ventricular hypertrophy (effect may be less in black patients).
  53. Magnesium Oxide (Magox):
    (from internet)

    • This medication is a
    • mineral supplement used to prevent and treat low amounts of magnesium in the blood.
    • Magnesium is very important for the normal functioning of cells, nerves,
    • muscles, bones, and the heart. Usually, a well-balanced diet provides normal blood levels of magnesium. However, certain
    • situations cause your body to lose magnesium faster than you can replace it
    • from your diet. These situations include treatment with "water pills"
    • (diuretics such as furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide), a poor
    • diet, alcoholism, or other
    • medical conditions (e.g., severe diarrhea/vomiting, stomach/intestinal
    • absorption problems, poorly controlled diabetes).
  54. Metformin (Glucophage):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antidiabetics

    • Pharm. Class.
    • biguanides



    Indications



    • Management of type 2 diabetes
    • mellitus; may be used with diet, insulin, or sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemics.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Decreases hepatic glucose production.

    • ·       
    • Decreases intestinal glucose absorption.

    • ·       
    • Increases sensitivity to insulin.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    Maintenance of blood glucose.
  55. Metoprolol (Toprol-XL) (Lopressor)
    beta blockers

    • Hypertension.

    • Angina pectoris.

    • • Prevention
    • of MI and decreased mortality in patients with recent MI.

    • Management of stable, symptomatic (class II or III) heart failure due to
    • ischemic, hypertensive or cardiomyopathc origin (may be used with ACE
    • inhibitors, diuretics and/or digoxin; Toprol XL only).
  56. Mirilax (I am pretty sure that this is polyethylene glycol)
    This is used to treat constipation.
  57. Morphine:
    opioid analgesics

    • Severe pain (the 20 mg/mL oral solution concentration should only be used in
    • opioid-tolerant patients).

    • • Pulmonary
    • edema.

    • • Pain
    • associated with MI.
  58. Niacin (vitamin B):
    • Ther. Class.
    • lipid-lowering agents
    • vitamins

    • Pharm. Class.
    • water soluble vitamins



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Treatment and prevention of niacin deficiency (pellagra).

    • ·       
    • Adjunctive therapy in certain hyperlipidemias (niacin only).



    Action



    • ·       
    • Required as coenzymes (for lipid metabolism, glycogenolysis, and
    • tissue respiration).

    • ·       
    • Large doses decrease lipoprotein and triglyceride synthesis by
    • inhibiting the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue and decreasing
    • hepatic lipoprotein synthesis (niacin only).

    • ·       
    • Cause peripheral vasodilation in large doses (niacin only).

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Decreased blood lipids (niacin only).

    • ·       
    • Supplementation in deficiency states.
  59. Nifedipine (Procardia):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antianginals
    • antihypertensives

    • Pharm. Class.
    • calcium
    • channel blockers



    Indications



    Management of:

    • ·       
    • Hypertension (extended-release only),

    • ·       
    • Angina pectoris,

    • ·       
    • Vasospastic (Prinzmetal's) angina.

    Unlabeled Use(s):

    • ·       
    • Prevention of migraine headache.

    • ·       
    • Management of HF or cardiomyopathy.



    Action



    • Inhibits calcium transport
    • into myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in inhibition of
    • excitation-contraction coupling and subsequent contraction.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Systemic vasodilation, resulting in decreased BP.

    • ·       
    • Coronary vasodilation, resulting in decreased frequency and severity
    • of attacks of angina.
  60. Nystatin Topical Powder
    antifungals

    • Treatment of a variety of cutaneous fungal
    • infections, including cutaneous candidiasis, tinea pedis (athlete's foot),
    • tinea cruris (jock itch), tinea corporis (ringworm), and tinea versicolor.
  61. Ondansetron (Zofran):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antiemetics

    • Pharm. Class.
    • five ht3 antagonists



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with highly or
    • moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.

    • ·       
    • PO: Prevention
    • of nausea and vomiting associated with radiation therapy.

    • ·       
    • Prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting.



    Action



    • Blocks the effects of
    • serotonin at 5-HT3–receptor sites (selective antagonist) located in
    • vagal nerve terminals and the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the CNS.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Decreased incidence and
    • severity of nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy or surgery.
  62. Oxazepam (Serax):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antianxiety
    • agents
    • sedative/hypnotics

    • Pharm. Class.
    • benzodiazepines

    • Controlled Substance
    • Schedule: IV



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Management of anxiety, anxiety associated with depression.

    • ·       
    • Symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.



    Action



    • Depresses the CNS, probably
    • by potentiating GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Decreased anxiety.

    • ·       
    • Diminished symptoms of alcohol withdrawal.
  63. Oxycodone:
    • Ther. Class.
    • opioid
    • analgesics

    • Pharm. Class.
    • opioid agonists
    • opioid agonists nonopioid analgesic combinations

    • Controlled Substance
    • Schedule: II



    Indications



    Moderate to severe pain.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Binds to opiate receptors in the CNS.

    • ·       
    • Alters the perception of and response to painful stimuli, while
    • producing generalized CNS depression.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    Decreased pain.
  64. Percocet
    • contains acetaminophen and oxycodone
    • (for pain)
  65. Piperacillin/Tazobactam (Zosyn):
    • Ther. Class.
    • anti-infectives

    • Pharm. Class.
    • extended spectrum penicillins



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Appendicitis and peritonitis.

    • ·       
    • Skin and skin structure infections.

    • ·       
    • Gynecologic infections.

    • ·       
    • Community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia caused by piperacillin-resistant, beta-lactamase–producing bacteria.



    Action



    Piperacillin: 

    • ·       
    • Binds to bacterial cell wall membrane, causing cell death.
    • Spectrum is extended compared with other penicillins.

    Tazobactam: 

    • ·       
    • Inhibits beta-lactamase, an enzyme that can destroy penicillins.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    Death of susceptible bacteria.

    • Active against piperacillin-resistant,
    • beta-lactamase–producing:

    • ·       
    • Bacteroides fragilis,

    • ·       
    • E. coli,

    • ·       
    • Acinetobacter baumanii,

    • ·       
    • Klebsiella pneumoniae,

    • ·       
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa,

    • ·       
    • Staphylococcus aureus,

    • ·       
    • Haemophilus influenzae.
  66. Potassium Chloride:
    • Ther. Class.
    • mineral and electrolyte replacements/supplements



    Indications



    Treatment/prevention of potassium depletion



    Action



    • ·       
    • Maintain acid-base balance, isotonicity, and electrophysiologic
    • balance of the cell

    • ·       
    • Activator in many enzymatic reactions; essential to transmission
    • of nerve impulses; contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle; gastric
    • secretion; renal function; tissue synthesis; and carbohydrate metabolism

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Replacement

    • ·       
    • Prevention of deficiency
  67. Prednisone:
    • Ther. class.
    • anti inflammatories steroidal
    • (intermediate acting) 
    • immune modifiers

    • • Used systemically and locally in a wide variety of chronic
    • diseases including:

    • »
    • Inflammatory,

    • »
    • Allergic,

    • »
    • Hematologic,

    • »
    • Neoplastic,

    • »
    • Autoimmune disorders.

    • • Suitable for alternate-day dosing in the management of chronic
    • illness.

    Unlabelled Use(s):

    • Adjunctive therapy of hypercalcemia.

    • • Adjunctive management of nausea and vomiting from
    • chemotherapy.
  68. Promethazine (Phenergan)
    • antiemetics, antihistamines, sedative/hypnotics,     treatment of various allergic conditions
    • and motion sickness, preoperative sedation, treatment and prevention of nausea
    • and vomiting, adjunct to anesthesia and analgesia
  69. Quinapril (Accupril):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antihypertensives

    • Pharm. Class.
    • ace inhibitors



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Alone or with other agents in the management of hypertension.

    • ·       
    • Management of heart failure.



    Action



    • Angiotensin-converting enzyme
    • (ACE) inhibitors block the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor
    • angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors also prevent the degradation of bradykinin and
    • other vasodilatory prostaglandins. ACE inhibitors also ↑ plasma renin levels and ↓ aldosterone levels. Net result is systemic
    • vasodilation.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Lowering of BP in hypertensive patients.

    • ·       
    • Decreased afterload and symptoms in patients with heart failure.
  70. Ranitidine:
    • Pharm. class.
    • histamine h2 antagonists

    • Short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcers and benign gastric ulcers.

    • Maintentance therapy for duodenal and gastric ulcers after healing of active
    • ulcer(s).

    • Management of gastric hypersecretory states (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome).

    • Treatment of and maintenace therapy for erosive esophagitis.

    • Treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

    • Heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach (OTC use).

    • • IV:
    • Prevention and treatment of stress-induced upper GI bleeding in critically ill
    • patients.
  71. Risperidone (Risperdal):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antipsychotics
    • mood stablilizers

    • Pharm. Class.
    • benzisoxazoles



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Schizophrenia in adults and adolescents age 13–17 yr.

    • ·       
    • Short-term treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated
    • with Bipolar I Disorder (oral only) in adults, and children and adolescents
    • aged 10–17 yr, maintenance treatment of Bipolar I Disorder (IM only) in adults
    • only; can be used with lithium or valproate (adults only).

    • ·       
    • Irritability associated with autistic disorder in children.



    Action



    • May act by antagonizing dopamine and
    • serotonin in the CNS.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Decreased symptoms of psychoses, bipolar
    • mania, or autism.
  72. Simethicone:
    • Ther. Class.
    • antiflatulent



    Indications



    • Relief of painful symptoms of excess gas in the GI tract that
    • may occur postoperatively or as a consequence of:

    • ·       
    • Air swallowing,

    • ·       
    • Dyspepsia,

    • ·       
    • Peptic ulcer,

    • ·       
    • Diverticulitis.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Causes the coalescence of gas bubbles.

    • ·       
    • Does not prevent the formation of gas.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Passage of gas through the GI tract by belching or passing
    • flatus.
  73. Senokot (senna):
    (the following info is from the internet)

    • Senna
    • is also known as Cassia senna, tinnevelly senna, Indian senna, Alexandrian
    • senna, and Khartoum senna.

    • Senna
    • has been used in alternative medicine as an aid to treat
    • constipation.

    • Not all uses for senna have been approved by
    • the FDA. Senna should not be used in place of medication prescribed for you by
    • your doctor.
  74. Sertraline (Zoloft):
    • Pharm. class.
    • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ssris

    • Major depressive disorder.

    • Panic disorder.

    • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    • Social anxiety disorder (social phobia).

    • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

    • Unlabelled Use(s): 
    • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
  75. Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antiulcer
    • agents

    • Pharm. Class.
    • alkalinizing agents



    Indications



    • ·       
    • PO: IV: Management of metabolic
    • acidosis.

    • ·       
    • PO: IV: Used to alkalinize urine
    • and promote excretion of certain drugs in overdosage situations (phenobarbital,
    • aspirin).

    • ·       
    • PO: Antacid.

    Unlabeled Use(s):

    • Stabilization of acid-base
    • status in cardiac arrest and treatment of life-threatening hyperkalemia.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Acts as an alkalinizing agent by releasing bicarbonate ions.

    • ·       
    • Following oral administration, releases bicarbonate, which is capable of
    • neutralizing gastric acid.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Alkalinization.

    • ·       
    • Neutralization of gastric acid.
  76. Spironolactone (Aldactone):
    • Ther. Class.
    • diuretics
    • potassium-sparing diuretics



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Management of primary hyperaldosteronism.

    • ·       
    • Management of edema associated with HF, cirrhosis and nephrotic
    • syndrome.

    • ·       
    • Management of essential hypertension.

    • ·       
    • Treatment of hypokalemia (counteracts potassium loss caused by
    • other diuretics).



    Action



    • Causes loss of sodium
    • bicarbonate and calcium while saving potassium and hydrogen ions by
    • antagonizing aldosterone.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Increased survival in patients with severe heart failure (New York
    • Heart Association class II-IV).

    • ·       
    • Weak diuretic and antihypertensive response when compared with
    • other diuretics.

    • ·       
    • Conservation of potassium.
  77. Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim)
    • Ther. class.
    • anti-infectives
    • antiprotozoals
    • Pharm. class.
    • folate antagonists
    • sulfonamides



    Indications



    • Treatment of:

    • »
    • Bronchitis,

    » Shigella enteritis,

    • »
    • Otitis media,

    • » Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
    • (PCP),

    • » Urinary
    • tract infections,

    • »
    • Traveler's diarrhea.

    • Prevention of PCP in HIV-positive patients.

    Unlabelled Use(s):

    • • Biliary tract infections, osteomyelitis, burn and wound
    • infections, chlamydial infections, endocarditis, gonorrhea, intra-abdominal
    • infections, nocardiosis, rheumatic fever prophylaxis, sinusitis, eradication of
    • meningococcal carriers, prophylaxis of urinary tract infections, and an
    • alternative agent in the treatment of chancroid.

    • Prevention of bacterial infections in immunosuppressed patients.
  78. Tacrolimus (Prograf)
    immunosuppressants

    • Prevention of organ rejection in patients who
    • have undergone allogenic liver, kidney, or heart transplantation (used
    • concurrently with corticosteroids)
  79. Terazosin (Hytrin):
    • Ther. Class.
    • antihypertensives

    • Pharm. Class.
    • peripherally acting antiadrenergics



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Mild to moderate hypertension (alone or with other agents).

    • ·       
    • Urinary outflow obstruction in patients with prostatic
    • hyperplasia.



    Action



    • ·       
    • Dilates both arteries and veins by blocking postsynaptic alpha1-adrenergic
    • receptors.

    • ·       
    • Decreases contractions in smooth muscle of the prostatic capsule.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Lowering of BP.

    • ·       
    • Decreased symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia (urinary urgency,
    • hesitancy, nocturia).
  80. Tiotropium (Spiriva)
    this is a MDI

    • Ther. Class.
    • bronchodilators

    • Pharm. Class.
    • anticholinergics



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Long-term maintenance treatment of bronchospasm due to COPD.

    • ·       
    • Reducing exacerbations in patients with COPD.



    Action



    • Acts as anticholinergic by selectively
    • and reversibly inhibiting M3 receptors
    • in smooth muscle of airways.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Decreased incidence and
    • severity of bronchospasm.
  81. Tramadol (Ultram)
    analgesics

    • Moderate to moderately severe pain
    • (extended-release formulations indicated for patients who require
    • around-the-clock pain management).
  82. Trazodone:
    antidepressants

    • Major depression.
    • Unlabelled Use(s): 
    • Insomnia, chronic pain syndromes, including
    • diabetic neuropathy, and anxiety.
  83. Valproates (Depakene) (Depakote):
    (I think it is also called valproic acid)
    • Ther. Class.
    • anticonvulsants
    • vascular
    • headache suppressants



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for simple and complex absence
    • seizures.

    • ·       
    • Monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for complex partial seizures.

    • ·       
    • Adjunctive therapy for patients with multiple seizure types,
    • including absence seizures.

    Divalproex sodium only: 

    • ·            
    •  

    • o   Manic
    • episodes associated with bipolar disorder,

    • o   Prevention
    • of migraine headache.



    Action



    • Increase levels of GABA, an
    • inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • ·       
    • Suppression of seizure activity.

    • ·       
    • Decreased manic episodes.

    • ·       
    • Decreased frequency of migraine headaches.
  84. Vancomycin (Vancocin):
    • Ther. Class.
    • anti-infectives



    Indications



    • ·       
    • IV: Treatment
    • of potentially life-threatening infections when less toxic anti-infectives are
    • contraindicated. Particularly useful in staphylococcal infections, including:

    o   Endocarditis,

    o   Meningitis,

    o   Osteomyelitis,

    o   Pneumonia,

    o   Septicemia,

    • o   Soft-tissue
    • infections in patients who have allergies to penicillin or its derivatives or
    • when sensitivity testing demonstrates resistance to methicillin.

    • ·       
    • PO: Treatment
    • of staphylococcal enterocolitis or pseudomembranous colitis due to Clostridium difficile.

    • ·       
    • IV: Part of
    • endocarditis prophylaxis in high-risk patients who are allergic to penicillin.



    Action



    Binds to bacterial cell wall, resulting in cell death.

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    Bactericidal action against susceptible organisms.

    Active against gram-positive pathogens, including:

    • ·       
    • Staphylococci (including methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus),

    • ·       
    • Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci,

    • ·       
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae,

    • ·       
    • Corynebacterium,

    • ·       
    • Clostridium difficile,

    • ·       
    • Enterococcus faecalis,

    • ·       
    • Enterococcus faecium.
  85. Venlafaxine (Effexor XR)
    • Pharm. class.
    • selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake
    • inhibitors

    • Major depressive disorder.

    • • Generalized anxiety disorder (Effexor XR
    • only).

    • • Social anxiety disorder (Effexor XR
    • only).

    • • Panic disorder (Effexor XR
    • only).

    • Unlabelled Use(s): 
    • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
  86. Vicodin:
    combination of hydrocodone & acetaminophen,
  87. Warfarin (Coumadin):
    • Ther. Class.
    • anticoagulants

    • Pharm. Class.
    • coumarins



    Indications



    • ·       
    • Prophylaxis and treatment of:

    • o   Venous
    • thrombosis,

    • o   Pulmonary
    • embolism,

    • o   Atrial
    • fibrillation with embolization.

    • ·       
    • Management of myocardial infarction:

    • o   Decreases
    • risk of death,

    • o   Decreases
    • risk of subsequent MI,

    • o   Decreases
    • risk of future thromboembolic events.

    • ·       
    • Prevention of thrombus formation and embolization after prosthetic
    • valve placement.



    Action



    • Interferes with hepatic
    • synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors (II, VII, IX, and X).

    Therapeutic Effect(s):

    • Prevention of thromboembolic
    • events.

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