Test 4 Ch19 Endocrine

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Test 4 Ch19 Endocrine
2013-07-14 22:43:12

Ayaz learns anatomy
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  1. Nervous system affects
    muscles, glands
  2. Endocrine system affects
    any cell, organ
  3. Pure endocrine glands
    5 glands, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adnernal
  4. Organs with endocrine cells
    hypothalamus, pancreas, thymus, ovaries, testes
  5. Anatomy of thyroid gland
    2 lateral lobes + isthmus (connecting both)
  6. Follicular cells
    T-thyrocyte cells, produce thyroid hormone, increase metabolism, heat
  7. Thyroid hormone is called
  8. Follicles
    store hormones as colloids
  9. Parafollicular cells
    produce calcitonin, C-thyrocyte cell, Thyroid gland
  10. Parathyroid glands
    4+ glands, posterior side of thyroid gland
  11. PTH
    Parathyroid hormone
  12. Chief cells
    make PTH in the parathyroid gland
  13. Parts of Adrenal (Suprarenal) gland
    • adrenal cortex (outer)
    • adrenal medulla (inner)
  14. Hormones produced in Adrenal medulla
    epinephrine, norepinephrine
  15. chromaffin cells
    postganglionic sympathetic cells, more long term than Sympathetic n.s
  16. Layers of adrenal cortex
    • Zona glomerulosa: outer
    • Zona fasciculata: middle
    • Zona reticularis: inner
  17. Zona glomerulosa
    produces aldosterone, adrenal cortex
  18. Zona fasciculata
    produces cortisol, adrenal cortex
  19. Zona reticularis
    produces andgrogens, adrenal cortex
  20. Adrenal hormones
  21. Aldosterone
    corticosteroid, zona glomerulosa
  22. Cortisol
    stress hormone, anti-inflammatory, corticosteroid in zona fasciculata
  23. androgens
    • can be converted into testosterone or estrogen by other organs
    • corticosteroid in zona reticularis
  24. Pancreatic islets
    islets of Langerhans, endocrine parts of pancreas
  25. glucagon
    alpha cells, increases blood glucose
  26. insulin
    • beta cells
    • decreases blood glucose
  27. Hyperglycemia
    Diabetes Mellitus
  28. Insulin dependent
    • type 1 diabetes
    • decrease Beta cells (autoimmune)
  29. Non-Insulin dependent
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • decrease insulin receptors
  30. T Lymphocytes
    matured by thymic hormones in thymus
  31. Melatonin
    • produced in pineal gland
    • stimulated by hypothalamus
  32. Renin
    Raises BP in kidneys
  33. Erythropoietin
    stimulates erythropoiesis, kidneys
  34. Estrogen
    produced in corpus luteum of the ovaries
  35. Progesterone
    produced in corpus luteum of the ovaries
  36. Estrogen
    produced by follicles in the ovaries
  37. Testosterone
    produced in the interstitial cells in the testes
  38. Hypothalamus
    master gland of the endocrine system
  39. ADH
    antidiuretic hormone, made in hypothalamus, released in posterior pituitary
  40. Oxytocin
    made in hypothalamus, released in posterior pituitary,
  41. RH
    releasing hormones, control anterior pituitary
  42. Hypophysis
  43. Infundibulum
    connection to pituitary
  44. Neurohypophysis
    • posterior pituitary
    • aka pars nervosa
  45. Adenohypophysis
    • Anterior pituitary
    • aka pars distalis
  46. Posterior pituitary
    axons from hypothalamus going through hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
  47. ANterior Pituitary hormones
    • 6,
    • Stimulating hormones: 
    • TSH
    • ACTH
    • FSH
    • LH
    • Other Hormones:
    • GH
    • PRL
  48. TSH
    thyroid stimulating hormone, anterior pituitary
  49. ACTH
    adrenocorticotropic hormone, stimulating ,anterior petuitary
  50. FSH
    follicle stimulating hormone (estrogen), stimulating, anterior pituitary
  51. LH
    luteinizing hormone (progesterone), stimulating, anterior pituitary
  52. GH
    growth hormone, anterior pituitary
  53. PRL
    prolactin, milk production, anterior pituitary
  54. Additional endocrine structures
    • 5, heart
    • skin
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • adipose
  55. ANP
    atrial natriuretic peptide, made in heart
  56. Cholecalciferol
    Vitamin D, made in skin
  57. Gastrin
    stomach hormone
  58. Secretin
    hormone of small intestine
  59. Cholecystokinin
    Hormone of small intestine
  60. Androgen converted to.....
    estrogen in adipose tissue
  61. Conscious affects on hormones
    • emotions
    • thoughts
    • cerebrum affects hypothalamus