lab quiz 4

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lab quiz 4
2013-07-15 09:32:15
mtc midlands tech bio 101 genetics cellular respiration meiosis spermatogenesis oogenesis gel electrophoresis

lab quiz 4 bio 101 Midland's Tech Professor Fernandez
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  1. genes
    units of heredity located on the chromosomes
  2. mutation
    a gene with an altered DNA base sequence
  3. syndrome
    a group of symptoms that appear together and tend to indicate the presence of a particular disorder
  4. amniocentesis
    used to view chromosome inheritance. a procedure in which a physician uses a long needle to withdraw a portion of the amniotic fluid containing fetal cells
  5. karyotype
    displays  and numbers the homologous chromosomes plus the sex chromosomes
  6. nondisjunction
    when homologues fail to separate during Meiosis I
  7. trisomy
    the inheritance of 3 chromosomes instead of 2
  8. what causes down syndrome
    when someone inherits 3 number 21 chromosomes
  9. what is turner syndrome and how does it occur?
    it is a syndrome which causes females to not undergo puberty. caused by the absence of the 2nd sex chromosome. they have one X instead of 2
  10. oogenesis
    when the cells of the ovary produce female gametes called oocytes
  11. what is the end result in Meiosis II of oogenesis
    a mature ovum and a second polar body that is discarded
  12. spermatogenesis
    the generation of sperm
  13. what is produced in Meiosis II the final stage of spermatogenesis
    spermatids which grow to mature sperm cells
  14. when does spermatogenesis occur
    spermatogonia are constantly replicating mitotically during the life of a male
  15. when does oogenesis occur
    all girls are born with all the primary oocytes (eggs) they will ever have. they are arrested in prophase I and when a girl reaches puberty hormones stimulate the growth of one or two of the primary oocytes each month. so once a month during ovulation
  16. poly x syndrome
    females with 3 X chromosomes
  17. klinefelter
    • males with an extra X chromosome
    • testes underdeveloped
    • breasts may be enlarged
  18. jacobs
    • males with 2 Y chromosomes
    • taller than average
    • persistent acne
    • speech and reading problems
  19. particulate theory
    • by Mendel states that
    • 1. inherited characters are determine by genes
    • 2. these factors occur in pairs
    • 3. when gametes form, these genes segregate so that only one of the homologous pair is contained in a particular gamete
  20. law of segregation
    each gamete has an equal chance of possessing either member of a pair of homologous chromosomes
  21. law of independent assortment
    genes on nonhomologous or different chromosomes will be distributed randomly onto gametes
  22. alleles
    alternate states of genes
  23. dominant
    alleles that mask expression of other alleles but are themselves expressed
  24. recessive
    alleles whose expression is masked by dominant alleles
  25. genotype
    includes all the alleles present in a cell, whether they are dominant or recessive
  26. phenotype
    physical appearance of the trait
  27. homozygous
    when paired alleles are identical
  28. heterozygous
    a pair of different alleles
  29. homozygous dominant/ homozygous recessive
    • 2 identical, dominant paired alleles AA
    • 2 identical, recessive paired alleles aa
  30. heterozygous dominant
    • aka Complete dominance
    • 2 different alleles, 1 dominant one masking the recessive one
    • Aa
  31. incomplete dominance
    • A kind of dominance occurring in heterozygotes in which the dominant allele is only partially expressed, and usually resulting in an offspring with an intermediate phenotype
    • ex. a red (dominant) and white flower is crossed and produces pink offspring
  32. monohybrid
    • cross involving 1 trait
    • Pp x Pp
  33. dihybrid
    • cross involving 2 traits
    • RrSs x RrSs (R red S smooth)
  34. genotypic ratio
    • ratio of all possible genotypes of the offspring
    • 1 PP : 2 Pp : 1 pp
  35. phenotypic ratio
    • ratio of physical trait of offspring
    • 3 purple : 1 white
  36. codominance
    • 2 alleles contribute to the phenotype of a heterozygote resulting in offspring with a phenotype that is neither dominant nor recessive
    • For instance, a person having A allele and B allele will have a blood type AB because both the A and B alleles are codominant with each other.
  37. genetics
    study of how information in DNA is passed on largely based on inheritance
  38. autosomes
    the first 22 chromosomes in a karyotype
  39. electrophoresis
    • DNA samples are put into gel hooked up to electrical field
    • current pulls DNA thru gel
    • larger molecules move slower than smaller
  40. meiosis
    produces haploid daughter nuclei and is sometimes called "reduction division"
  41. bivalent
    two chromatids paired together
  42. synapsis
    the pairing of homologous chromosomes
  43. crossing over
    change of genetic material between chromatids & produces new genetic combinations
  44. phases of Meiosis
    • prophase I
    • metaphase I
    • anaphase I
    • telophase I
    • prophase II
    • metaphase II
    • anaphase II
    • telophase II
  45. prophase I
    chromosomes of the same type join together to form bivalents and pass over some of their DNA (crossing over)
  46. metaphase I
    bivalents line up at the metaphase plate
  47. anaphase I
    bivalents separate and move away
  48. telophase I
    nuclear membranes reform and the cleavage furrow forms
  49. prophase II
    chromatids condense and spindle starts to form (in both cells)
  50. metaphase II
    chromatids line up on metaphase plate
  51. anaphase II
    chromatids separate and move toward poles
  52. telophase II
    chromosomes decondense and nuclear membranes are reformed. the 2 cells are separated into 4 cells by the cleavage furrow
  53. interkinesis
    the interval between meiosis I and meiosis II
  54. gametogenesis
    the formation of gametes
  55. gametes
    reproductive cells with haploid nuclei resulting from meiosis
  56. two processes that cells use to release energy stored in chemical bonds of the organic molecules found in food
    fermentation and cellular respiration
  57. anaerobic
    process in which oxygen is not required (fermentation)
  58. aerobic
    process in which oxygen is required (cellular respiration)
  59. during fermentation
    glucose is incompletely broken down and much energy remains in the organic molecule that results. a small amount of chemical energy is converted to ATP molecules
  60. during cellular respiration
    glucose is broken down completely into inorganic molecules. a large amount of chemical energy is converted to ATP molecules
  61. equation for fermentation (yeast)
    lactic acid
    • C6H12O6 → 2 CO2 + 2 C2H5OH + 2 ATP
    • glucose                                     ethanol

    for lactic acid substitute ethanol for C3H6O3
  62. equation for cellular respiration
    C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36-38 ATP
  63. respirometer
    • device for measuring the amount of gas given off and/or consumed
    • creates anaerobic conditions
  64. in eukaryotes, fermentation occurs
    in the cytoplasm
  65. in eukaryotes, cellular respiration occurs
    in the mitochondrion
  66. ___ is consumed during cellular respiration and ___ is given off
    • oxygen gas
    • carbon dioxide
  67. ______ is the evidence that an organism is carrying on cellular respiration
    the uptake of oxygen