EMT-Chapter 25-Submersion Incidents: Drowning & Diving Emergencies
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Submersion causing primary respiratory impairment whether the persons survives or dies after the event.
- A substance responsible for maintaining surface tension in the alveoli.
- A lipoprotein that lines the inner surface. Maintains a surface wall tension that keeps the wall from collapsing.
- If washed off by water, it might lead to Acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)
- Always assume that a diver has sustained a neck and spine injury.
- If the patient is suspected to be hypothermic, assess the pulse for 10s. If no pulse is found, assume it is not present, begin CPR and apply AED.
- Remove patient from water ASAP.
- Always stabilize C-spine
- Back board the patient.
- Prepare to suction.
- Determine if foreign objects are present in the airway.
- If the patient suffers gastric distension, apply pressure to the abdomen if suction is available.
Mammalian Diving Reflex
- The body's natural response to submersion in cold water in which breathing is inhibited, the heart rate decreases, the blood vessels constrict in order to maintain cerebral and cardiac blood flow.
- Occurs when people dive into cold water.
Occurs as a result of the bubbles formed from the expansion of nitrogen in the blood and tissues. They act as emboli and cause obstruction in the circulation; they compress or stretch the blood vessels and nerves.
Arterial Gas Embolism(AGE)
Is a blocking of blood vessels by an air bubble or clusters of air bubbles. Blockage interferes with perfusion of O2 delivery.
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