Path 2 Nervous System

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Path 2 Nervous System
2013-07-15 13:11:16
Path nervous system

nervous system pages 169-178
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  1. Why would damage to the central nervous system be so problematic?

    Essay Final
    Central Nervous system controls the body. Spinal cord is sensory & motor pathway to communication with brain. The brain controls body, cognition, organ systems. Damage to the nervous system results in loss of function or control of body.
  2. 7 common manifestations of nervous disease
    • Altered sensation -diabetes
    • muscle atrophy
    • muscle weakness -weak nerve signal, pinched
    • spasticity -muscle firing &rigid
    • abnormal reflexes
    • cognitive changes -alzheimers
    • mood disturbances -frontal lobe
  3. Spina Bifida
    congenital disease of CNS
    • congenital
    • vertebral arches lumbar vert not fused properly(posteriorly)
    • associated w/ Arnold Chiari malformation
    • nutrient deficiency of folic acid
  4. Spina bifida occulta
    congenital disease of CNS
    • mildest, generally no symptoms
    • incomplete fusion vertebrae
    • small dimple, tuft of hair, present at site
    • 20% population
  5. Meningocele
    congenital disease of CNS
    • protrusion of meningeal sac filled w/csf
    • lower motor & sensory disorders
  6. meningomyelocele
    congenital disease of CNS
    • serious
    • parts of spinal cord(nerves) in sac
    • lower limb paralysis
    • sensory loss
    • inconstinence
  7. spina bifida aperta
    congenital disease of CNS
    • most sever, rare
    • complete failure of vertebral fusion
    • severly disabling, often incompatable w/life
  8. defective closure of cranial end
    congenital disease of CNS
    • less common
    • incompatible w/life
  9. Arnold chiari malformation
    congenital disease of CNS
    • elongated medulla oblongata
    • messes w/reabsorption, circulation of CSF
    • most common cause of hydrocephalus
    • headaches from obstructed flow CSF
  10. cerebral palsy
    congenital disease of CNS
    • variety of non-inherited motor disorders
    • acquired in utero or soon after delivery
  11. fetal alcohol syndrome
    congenital disease of CNS
    • alcohol consumption during pregnancy
    • ethanol directly toxic to CNS
    • most vulnerable during 1st trimester
    • (3 children of every 2,ooo born w/ this)
    • mental retardation, microcephaly, growth retardation
  12. cerebral edema
    • protective bony structures crush CNS as it expands
    • secondary to injury
    • head trauma
  13. herniation
    • general or localized cerebral edema causes brain to shift position
    • compressed nerves and vessels
    • Ptosis *drooping upper eyelid, CN III
    • "blown pupil"*CN III impingement, no pupillary reflex
  14. hydrocephalus
    • accumulation excess CSF in ventricular system of brain
    • water on brain
    • congenital(arnold chiari) or trauma
    • Non-communicating*obstruction in ventricle
    • Communicating*CSF passes out of ventricular system, but is obstructed in subarachnoid space , reabsorption reduced
    • altered mental status, dizzy, lack coordination, naseau
  15. increased intracranial pressure (ICP)
    • hydrocephalus to increased intracranial pressure to decreased perfusion(interference of blood flow in vessels)
    • headaches, vomiting,
  16. seizure disorders or epilepsies
    • abnormal electrical discharges in brain
    • 75% idiopathic (unknown causes)
    • triggers*flashing lights, smells, sounds, stress, fever, medication, sleep deprivation
  17. partial seizure (FYI)
    • Simple*consciousness not impaired
    • Complex *(temperoal lobe seizure)*loss consciousness
  18. generalized seizures (FYI)
    absence*common children, 5-10 sec, clusters

    Tonic-Clonic(Grand Mall)*abrupt loss consciousness, muscle stiffness, jerking, twitching

    Myoclonic*sudden, brief , single or clusters

    Atonic(drop seizures)*sudden, abrupt collapse
  19. cerebrovascular accidents
    • impaired blood flow, rupture vessel brain
    • neurons are cells most vulnerable to injury w/irreversible damage occurring in 7 min.
    • 3rd leading cause brain damage
  20. ischemic stroke
    cerebrovascular accident
    lack blood flow
  21. transient ischemic attack
    cerebrovcascular accident
    • few min to under 24 hours
    • temporary loss neurological function
    • mini-strokes
    • precede 3% strokes
  22. intracranial hemorrhages
    bleeding on brain
  23. subarachnoid hemorrhage
    • non-traumatic
    • most common cause saccular aneurysm
    • abrupt
    • rupture anytime after acute increase in ICP
    • common females
    • straining at stools and orgasms
    • "worst headache of my life"
  24. epidural hematoma
    central nervous trauma
    • trauma
    • rupture of meningeal artery compressing dura and flattening brain, may lead to herniation of brain and death
    • fast bleeding
  25. subdural hematome
    central nervous system
    • disruption veins between cortex and dural venous sinuses
    • slow bleeing
  26. traumatic parenchymal injury
    traumatic parenchymal injury
    • consussion
    • loss cerebral function, immediately following head injury
  27. diffuse axonal injury
    traumatic parenchymal injury
    • sudden acceleration/deceleration
    • tears nerves of brain
    • secondary to change in momentum of brain
    • most common form post traumatic dementia along w/hypoxic injury is responsible for most cases of persistent vegetative states
  28. contusions
    traumatic parenchymal injury
    bleeding on brain due to trauma
  29. spinal cord injury
    • traumatic injury to cord
    • common males under 40
    • penetrating wounds, fractures & displacement vertabrae
  30. paraplegia
    spinal cord injury
    loss sensory motor function in lower extremeties
  31. quadriplegia
    • loss sensory motor function in upper & lower extremities
    • causes autonomic dysreflexia, spasticity
  32. carpal tunnel
    nerve compression syndrome
    • median nerve entrapment at wrist
    • 1st fingers & radial 1/2 of 4th finger
  33. ulnar nerve
    nerve compressions syndrome
    • ulnar nerve entrapment/irritation at elbow
    • lateral ulnar 1/2 of 4th & 5th finger
  34. common peroneal nerve
    nerve compression syndrome
    • fibular head entrapment
    • dorsal flexion foot
    • branch sciatic nerve, ant. compartment leg
  35. sciatica
    nerve compression syndrome
    control posterior thigh, crus, foot, piriformis