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3 pts of Principle of Complementarity
- 1.Anatomy and physiology are inseparable
- 2.Function always reflects structure
- 3.What a structure can do depends on its specific form
The study of structure of body parts
Subdivisions of Anatomy
Gross or macroscopic
3 Examples of Gross or macroscopic Anatomy
- systemic anatomy
3 Examples of Microscopic Anatomy
5 Essential tools for the study of anatomy
- Mastery of anatomical terminology
- Observation Manipulation
- Palpation Auscultation
The study of function at many levels
3 Essential tools for the study of physiology
Ability to focus at many levels (from systemic to cellular and molecular)
Basic physical principles (e.g., electrical currents, pressure, and movement)
Basic chemical principles
Levels of Structural Organization
- Chemical: atoms and molecules (Chapter 2)
- Cellular: cells and their organelles (Chapter 3)
- Tissue: groups of similar cells (Chapter 4)
- Organ: contains two or more types of tissues
- Organ system: organs that work closely together
- Organismal: all organ systems
What Happens in Step 1: Chemical level of Structural Organization
Atoms combine to form molecules
What Happens in Step 2: Cellular level of Structural Organization
Cells are made up of molecules
What Happens in Step 3: Tissues level of Structural Organization
Tissues consist of similar types of cells.
What Happens in Step 4: Organ level of Structural Organization
Organs are made up of different types of tissues.
What Happens in Step 5: Organ System level of Structural Organization
Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely
What Happens in Step 6: Organismal System level of Structural Organization
The human organism is made up of many organ systems
1.Forms the external body covering, andprotects deeper tissues from injury.
2.Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.)receptors and sweat and oil glands.
- Protects and supports body organs,and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement.
- Blood cells are formed within bones.
- Bones store minerals.
Allows manipulation of the environment,locomotion, and facial expression.
Maintains posture, and produces heat.
As the fast acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction,and nutrient use (metabolism) by bodycells.
Blood vessels transport blood,which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood.
- Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood.
- Disposes of debrisin the lymphatic stream. Houses whiteblood cells (lymphocytes) involved immunity.
- The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.
Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells.
Indigestible food stuffs are eliminated as feces.
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
Overall function is production of offspring
- Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract.
- Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones.
The remaining female structures
serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus.
of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn.
All cells depend on ______ ______ to meet their survival needs.
Organ systems work cooperatively to perform ______ ______ ______
necessary life functions
Necessary Life Functions (8)
1. Maintaining boundaries
between internal and external environments
(contractility)Of body parts (skeletal muscle)Of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle)
- 3. Responsiveness: The ability to sense and respond to stimuli.
- Withdrawal reflex
- Control of breathing rate
- 4. Digestion Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs
- Absorption of simple molecules into blood
- 5. Metabolism: All chemical reactions that occur in body cells
- Catabolism and anabolism
- 6. Excretion: The removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion
- Urea, carbon dioxide, feces
- 7. Reproduction Cellular division for growth or repair
- Production of offspring
- 8. Growth: Increase in size of a body part or of organism
Survival Needs (5)
- 1. Nutrients Chemicals for energy and cell building
- Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins
Essential for energy release (ATP production)
4. Normal body temperature
- 3. Water Most abundant chemical in the body
- Site of chemical reactions
Affects rate of chemical reactions
5. Appropriate atmospheric pressure
For adequate breathing and gas exchange in the lungs
- Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes
- A dynamic state of equilibrium
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
- involve continuous monitoring and regulation of many factors (variables)
- Nervous and endocrine systems accomplish the communication via nerve impulses and hormones
Components of a Control Mechanism (3)
- 1. Receptor (sensor)Monitors the environment
- Responds to stimuli (changes in controlled variables)
- 2. Control center Determines the set point at which the variable is maintained
- Receives input from receptor
- Determines appropriate response
- 3. EffectorReceives output from control center
- Provides the means to respond
- Response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback)
Steps in Control Center Balance
1. Stimulus produces change invariable
2. Receptor detects change.
3. Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center.
4. Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector
5. Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostaticl level.
The response reduces or shuts off the original stimulus
Examples of Negative Feedback (2)
Regulation of body temperature (a nervous mechanism)
Regulation of blood volume by ADH (an endocrine mechanism)
3 steps to Negative Feedback: Regulation of Blood Volume by ADH
Receptors sense decreased blood volume
Control center in hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
ADH causes the kidneys (effectors) to return more water to the blood
- The response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus
- May exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect
- Usually controls infrequent events
Examples of Positive Feedback (2)
e.g.:Enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin (Chapter 28)
Platelet plug formation and blood clotting
Disturbance of homeostasis Increases risk of disease
Contributes to changes associated with aging
May allow destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over (e.g., heart failure)
4 Steps od Positive feedback:
loop in blood clotting
- 1. Break or tear occurs in blood vessel wall.
- 2. Platelets adhere to site and release chemicals.
- 3. Released chemicals attract more platelets.
- 4. Platelet plug forms
deals with structures too small to be seen with the naked eye.
which considers the cells of the body.
the study of tissues.
a subdivision of developmental anatomy, concerns developmental changes that occur before birth.
studies structural changes caused by desease.