week 1.txt

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week 1.txt
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2013-07-15 13:44:25
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week 1
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  1. What are the 3 domains of life
    Prokaryotes (BACTERIA, ARCHAEA); and EUKARYOTES
  2. What is a phylogeny
    The evolutionary history of a group
  3. How are phylogenies created? 3 steps.
    1.Observe, record, and compara data, 2.analyze data, and 3.hypothesize diagram based on characteristics,
  4. What characteristics can be compared in making phylogenetic trees
    Morphological or molecular
  5. What is one method to form an evolutionary hypothesis
    1.define outgroup, 2. Find synapomorphies, 3. Construct phylogeny using parsimony
  6. What are photoheterotrophs?
    Organisms that use light to make ATP but don’t get Carbon from CO2 and don’t make O2.
  7. What are photoautotrophs?
    Organisms that use light to make ATP for carbon fixation, generate O2
  8. What is carbon fixation?
    Turning CO2 into glucose
  9. What did oxygenetic photosynthesis help do?
    Set stage for rise and diversification of eukaryotes.
  10. How does endosymbiosis pass down?
    One cell engulfs another, and then they duplicate through mitosis
  11. What do chloroplasts in red algae contain
    Chlorophyll a, phycoerythin (makes them red), and they store carbs as floridean starch.
  12. What is the endosymbiosis of euglenoids
    Secondary where green algae are endosymbionts
  13. What is the endosymbiosis of stramenopiles and some dinoflagellates
    Secondary where red algae are endosymbionts
  14. What are some of the stramenopiles
    Brown algae, golden brown algae, and diatoms.
  15. What is the endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates
    Tertiary endosymbiosis
  16. What are the 3 main characteristics of a plant?
    Eukaryote with chloroplasts derived from primary symbiosis, chloroplasts with chlorophyll a & b, and they store carbs as starch
  17. What are synapomorphies of the streptophytes
    Retention of egg in parental organism, apical growth, oogamy, plasmodesmata
  18. What is ‘the other green algae’
    Spirogyra
  19. What is parenchyma?
    Basic plant tissue with cells linked by plasmodesmata.
  20. Two earliest branching lineages of streptophytes
    Coleochaete and chara
  21. Openings in body that allow gas in & out without compromising water loss
    Stomata through accessory pigments.
  22. What does sporellin do?
    Protects the spores until the conditions are right for germination.
  23. What part of the plant produces egg and protects zygote?
    Archegonium
  24. What part of the plant produces the sperm
    Antheridium.
  25. What are some of the oldest fossil spores similar to in the modern plants?
    Liverworts
  26. 3 main facts about bryophytes
    Water moves inside by osmosis, have swimming sperm, no strong suppertive tissue in gametophyte
  27. 3 ways plans evolved
    Vascular tissue to moves sugar and water, reproductive mechanism to lessen dependence of water, new partnerships with land animals
  28. How are organs connected in plants?
    Vascular tissue
  29. How do xylem and phloem move? In what directions?
    Xy is high, phlo is low
  30. Where does seed coat come from and what is its generation?
    It is derived from sporophyte; 2n
  31. What does nucellus come from and what is its generation?
    From sporangium and n
  32. What does nutritive tissue come from
    Female gametophyte’s body, n
  33. What is the embry
    Next generation sporophyte 2n
  34. 3 more facts of bryophytes
    Absorb water and minerals through surface (osmosis & diffusion), 2 flagella, no true root stems or leaves,
  35. In bryophytes, what does the sporophyte need the gametophyte for?
    It is dependent on it for nutrition, either partially or entirely during development
  36. In bryophytes, what to germinated spores form?
    Immature gametophytes
  37. What are two forms of liverwort gametophytes
    Flattened (thalloid) or leafy
  38. What do rhizoids do on liverworts
    Anchor them to where they grow (look like ugly little hairs)
  39. Why do liverwort sporophytes split into valves?
    To release spores and elaters
  40. Why do some liverworts have air pores?
    To produce asexual gemmae in gemma cups
  41. Why do some thalloid liverworts have special ambrella-like structures
    For antheridia and archegonia production
  42. Where do some leafy liverworts and some thalloid liverworts produce gammae
    Along margins of gametophyte
  43. Where do some leafy and thalloid liverworts produce archegonia
    In perianth
  44. What is a cryptothallus
    A non-photosynthetic thalloid liverwort parasitic on basidiomycete fungi that have mycorrhizae with birch and pine
  45. What is the perisome?
    Teeth that surround the mouth of the capsule through which spores are released
  46. What is a perigonium
    Group of antheridia
  47. What is a perichaetium
    Group of archegonia
  48. What do dung mosses have for flies?
    Specializes capsules for fly dispersed spores.

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