Card Set Information
What are the 3 domains of life
Prokaryotes (BACTERIA, ARCHAEA); and EUKARYOTES
What is a phylogeny
The evolutionary history of a group
How are phylogenies created? 3 steps.
1.Observe, record, and compara data, 2.analyze data, and 3.hypothesize diagram based on characteristics,
What characteristics can be compared in making phylogenetic trees
Morphological or molecular
What is one method to form an evolutionary hypothesis
1.define outgroup, 2. Find synapomorphies, 3. Construct phylogeny using parsimony
What are photoheterotrophs?
Organisms that use light to make ATP but dont get Carbon from CO2 and dont make O2.
What are photoautotrophs?
Organisms that use light to make ATP for carbon fixation, generate O2
What is carbon fixation?
Turning CO2 into glucose
What did oxygenetic photosynthesis help do?
Set stage for rise and diversification of eukaryotes.
How does endosymbiosis pass down?
One cell engulfs another, and then they duplicate through mitosis
What do chloroplasts in red algae contain
Chlorophyll a, phycoerythin (makes them red), and they store carbs as floridean starch.
What is the endosymbiosis of euglenoids
Secondary where green algae are endosymbionts
What is the endosymbiosis of stramenopiles and some dinoflagellates
Secondary where red algae are endosymbionts
What are some of the stramenopiles
Brown algae, golden brown algae, and diatoms.
What is the endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates
What are the 3 main characteristics of a plant?
Eukaryote with chloroplasts derived from primary symbiosis, chloroplasts with chlorophyll a & b, and they store carbs as starch
What are synapomorphies of the streptophytes
Retention of egg in parental organism, apical growth, oogamy, plasmodesmata
What is the other green algae
What is parenchyma?
Basic plant tissue with cells linked by plasmodesmata.
Two earliest branching lineages of streptophytes
Coleochaete and chara
Openings in body that allow gas in & out without compromising water loss
Stomata through accessory pigments.
What does sporellin do?
Protects the spores until the conditions are right for germination.
What part of the plant produces egg and protects zygote?
What part of the plant produces the sperm
What are some of the oldest fossil spores similar to in the modern plants?
3 main facts about bryophytes
Water moves inside by osmosis, have swimming sperm, no strong suppertive tissue in gametophyte
3 ways plans evolved
Vascular tissue to moves sugar and water, reproductive mechanism to lessen dependence of water, new partnerships with land animals
How are organs connected in plants?
How do xylem and phloem move? In what directions?
Xy is high, phlo is low
Where does seed coat come from and what is its generation?
It is derived from sporophyte; 2n
What does nucellus come from and what is its generation?
From sporangium and n
What does nutritive tissue come from
Female gametophytes body, n
What is the embry
Next generation sporophyte 2n
3 more facts of bryophytes
Absorb water and minerals through surface (osmosis & diffusion), 2 flagella, no true root stems or leaves,
In bryophytes, what does the sporophyte need the gametophyte for?
It is dependent on it for nutrition, either partially or entirely during development
In bryophytes, what to germinated spores form?
What are two forms of liverwort gametophytes
Flattened (thalloid) or leafy
What do rhizoids do on liverworts
Anchor them to where they grow (look like ugly little hairs)
Why do liverwort sporophytes split into valves?
To release spores and elaters
Why do some liverworts have air pores?
To produce asexual gemmae in gemma cups
Why do some thalloid liverworts have special ambrella-like structures
For antheridia and archegonia production
Where do some leafy liverworts and some thalloid liverworts produce gammae
Along margins of gametophyte
Where do some leafy and thalloid liverworts produce archegonia
What is a cryptothallus
A non-photosynthetic thalloid liverwort parasitic on basidiomycete fungi that have mycorrhizae with birch and pine
What is the perisome?
Teeth that surround the mouth of the capsule through which spores are released
What is a perigonium
Group of antheridia
What is a perichaetium
Group of archegonia
What do dung mosses have for flies?
Specializes capsules for fly dispersed spores.