week 2.txt

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week 2.txt
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week 2
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  1. What is the term for vascular plants?
    Tracheophytes
  2. What do trachephytes have?
    Specialized pipes for moving water and minerals and for moving sugar from leaves to lower parts of the plant
  3. What parts of plant evolved along with the vascular tissue (what organs)?
    Roots to absorb water and minerals; the xylem begins here.
  4. Where does the phloem start? How does it work?
    Leaves make sugar and the phloem starts at leaves.
  5. What do the stems do? How does it affect photosynthesis?
    Support plant to elevate leaves and spread them out, this maximizes photosynthesis.
  6. Where is the vascular tissue found?
    In the center of the stem and roots
  7. What is the vascular cylinder?
    It is where the xylem and phloem are at the center of roots and steps
  8. What kind of cells are the xylem cells?
    Tracheids. Long xylem cells full of holes (pits).. empty and dead at maturity.
  9. How does water interact with tracheids?
    Water moves freely between tracheids in a continuous flow
  10. What are tracheids strengthened by?
    Ligning- a complex polymer
  11. What are guard cells?
    A pair of cells, one on each side of the stoma
  12. What happens when guard cells get turgid?
    The stoma opens
  13. What happens when guard cells are floppy?
    The stoma is closed
  14. How does the xylem work?
    It starts with the stomata
  15. What does opening and closing on stomata control?
    It controls the flow of water through the xylem
  16. Where does water evaporation occur? What is it called?
    It is called transpiration and occurs through stoma
  17. What is the mechanism through which water moves in the plant?
    Cohesion-tension model
  18. Why does water evaporation occur?
    To help keep water from being pulled up from the roots
  19. What are the phloem cells?
    They are called sieve cells. Long phloem cells that is alive at maturity. Have perforated ends in the cell wall.
  20. How does sugar move in the cell membrane?
    From sieve to sieve through perforations. They have no organelles so they depend on companion cells for metabolism.
  21. How is sugar moved?
    It is actively moved. It uses energy to pump sugar across membranes regardless of concentration gradient.
  22. What are lycophytes
    They have independent gametophyte and sporophyte generations.
  23. Synapomorphy of lycophytes
    Microphylls
  24. How do lycophytes and strobili relate?
    Sometimes, sporangia clustered at the top of the branches called strobili.
  25. Which type has independent gametophyte and sporophyte generations?
    Monilophytes
  26. What are micophylls
    Small leaves with a single midvein
  27. What is a megaphyll?
    A true leaf. They are larger than micro and have many branching veins. Euphyllophytes
  28. What are euphyllophytes
    Megaphylls
  29. How are fern gametophytes shaped
    Hearts
  30. What are megaphylls synapomorphies for?
    Monophytes and seed plants
  31. What led to the evolution of megaphylls?
    Overtopping growth
  32. What are fiddleheads?
    Leaves are coiled while coming out.
  33. What are sori?
    Clusters of sporangia usually on the backs of leaves. Little bumps
  34. Sori may be covered with a flap of green tissue.. what is this tissue called?
    Indusium
  35. Why are ferns not true trees?
    They don’t have wood
  36. What happens when the spores produced in the sporangia reach maturity?
    They are ejected and flung out
  37. How do horsetails use their branches?
    Branches are for photosynthetic functions
  38. What is different about horsetails?
    They have no leaves, they produce strobulus, their stems are hollow, and they have silica filled ridges in the stem
  39. What kind of adaptations are involved in the evolution of the seed?
    Separation of sexes in gametophyte and geterospory, small size of sporangia and gametophytes, female gametophyte is protected and nourished by sporophyte. (sporophyte is dominant generation), male gametophyte grows INTO female genotype, delivers sperm inside the female gametophyte.
  40. What is heterospory?
    When two kinds of sporangia produce two different kinds of spores which lead to two kinda of gametophytes
  41. Female gamtophyte path
    Megasporangium > megaspores > megagametophyte > archegonia > egg
  42. Male gametophyte path
    Microsporangium > microspores > microgametophyte > antheridia > sperm
  43. What is the meagasporangium surrounded by and what is it made of?
    integument, made of a protective layer of sporophyte tissue
  44. What happens to the cells inside the megasporangium?
    One will undergo meiosis to produce 4 megaspores, all but 1 will disintegrate, it will then develop into megagametophyte which produces archegonia and eggs.
  45. What is another word for megagametophyte?
    Ovule
  46. What is the process inside the microsporangium?
    Multiple microspores are made through meiosis, each microspore grows into a 2-3 cell microgametophyte, the gametophyte is called a POLLEN GRAIN
  47. How does fertilization occur in seed plants?
    Pollen is delivered by wind, water, or animals to ovule, pollen grows a tube to the ovule, sperm nuclei are delivered through tube to ovule and fertilizes.
  48. Why are seeds advantageous?
    Can withstand period without drying, contain embryo with nutritive tissue inside, can remain dormant until conditions are right.
  49. What do we commonly refer to as wood?
    Secondary zylem
  50. What is secondary growth?
    Growth in diameter, annual rings
  51. What are some advantages of secondary growth (i.e. being a tree)?
    Longevity
  52. Types of gynmnosperms (4)?
    Gnetophytes, ginco, cyads, and conifers
  53. What are gnetophytes?
    Oldest plant on earth. Only 2 huge leaves grow continuously
  54. What is a ginki
    Extinct in the wild. Preserved in china by cultivation
  55. What are cyads
    Short, woody trunks, long divided leaves, and loosely organized male and femal ‘cones’.. sperm is flagellated.
  56. What are conifers?
    Gymnosperms that produce seeds in cones, have needle-like or scale-like leaves. Have resin in leaves and wood.
  57. Which kind of gymnosperm is the cypress relative?
    Conifers
  58. In cones, what do female eggs develop into.
    Seeds
  59. In cones, what do male microsporangia produce?
    Pollen.

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