Nervous System

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alb229
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227181
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Nervous System
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2013-07-15 14:50:08
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BYU Anatomy
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BYU Anatomy - Nervous System - Ch. 12
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  1. Neuron
    A nerve cell

    348
  2. Soma
    Main body of neuron

    348
  3. dendrites
    • - tree-like branches
    • - for input/sensory (not output)

    350
  4. Axon
    Impulse generators and conductors that transmit nerve impulses away from their cell body.

    350
  5. Neurilemma
    Thin sheath around a nerve axon; external material

    worksheet; 356
  6. Myelin Sheath
    Fatty insulating sheath that surrounds all but the thinnest nerve fibers

    glossary; 356
  7. Node of Ranvier
    Gaps in the myelin sheath

    356
  8. Astrocytes
    Star-shaped glial cells of the CNS

    355
  9. Microglia
    Glial cells derived from mesoderm; function as macrophages (scavengers) in the CNS.

    worksheet
  10. Ependymal Cells
    Form a simple epithelium that lines the central cavity of the spinal cord and brain.

    355
  11. Oligodendrocytes
    "few branch cells"; line up in small groups and wrap their cell processes around the thicker axons in the CNS, producing insulating coverings called myelin sheaths.

    355
  12. Satellite Cells
    Type of neuroglia in the PNS; surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia(clusters of cell bodies).

    356
  13. Schwann Cells
    Type of neuroglia in the PNS; surround all axons in the PNS and form myelin sheaths around many of these axons.

    356
  14. Extreme Longevity (Neurons)
    Neurons can live and function for a lifetime, over 100 years.

    348
  15. Amitotic (Neurons)
    Do not divide; lose ability to undergo mitosis.

    348
  16. High Metabolic Rate (Neurons)
    Continuous and abundant supplies of oxygen and glucose.  Neurons cannot survive for more than a few minutes without oxygen.

    348
  17. Conducting Potential (Neurons)
    352
  18. Synapses
    The way neurons communicate; transmit information through chemical messengers.  Some neurons in the CNS transmit signals electronically through gap junctions.

    351
  19. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • -brain
    • -spinal cord

    worksheet
  20. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • -Everything outside the CNS.
    • -Divide into several functional systems
    •            -visceral (autonomic)
    •            -somatic
    •            -motor
    •            -sensory

    worksheet
  21. Sensory (afferent)
    • -transmits impulses toward the CNS
    •      -somatic sensory: controls touch, temperature, propioception in skin, body wall, and limbs

    worksheet
  22. Sensory (afferent)
    -visceral sensory: controls stretch, pain, temperature, and chemical changes in viscera, nausea, and hunger.

    worksheet
  23. Motor (efferent)
    • -transmits impulses away from the CNS
    •       -somatic motor: voluntary, innervates skeletal muscle

    worksheet
  24. Motor (efferent)
    visceral motor (Autonomic Nervous System/ANS): involuntary, innervates involuntary muscle and glands

    worksheet
  25. Motor (efferent)
    Sympathetic: most active when body is in excitement or emergency situations

    worksheet
  26. Motor (efferent)
    Parasympathetic: most active when body is at rest

    worksheet
  27. Multipolar Neurons
    • -more than two processes
    • -numerous dendrites and single axon
    • -small multipolar neurons have no axon and rely on dendrites for conducting signals
    • -99% of neurons belong to multipolar
    • -found in the CNS as interneurons
    • -exit CNS as motor neurons

    worksheet, 353
  28. Bipolar Neurons
    • -more than two processes
    • -occur in special sensory organs (inner ear, retina of the eye, epithelium of the nose)
    • -serve as sensory neurons

    353
  29. Unipolar (Pseudounipolar) Neurons
    • -pseudo=false
    • -found in PNS as sensory neurons
    • -short, single process
    • -emerges from cell body and divides like an inverted T into two long branches
    • -start out as bipolar first
    • -make up typical sensory neurons

    353
  30. Afferent
    carrying toward

    347
  31. Efferent
    carrying away

    347
  32. Endoneurium (Nerves)
    • -covers schwann cells
    • -delicate layer of loose connective tissue

    360
  33. Fascicles (Nerves)
    Groups of axons bound into bundles

    360
  34. Perineurium (Nerves)
    Wrapping of connective tissue

    360
  35. Epineurium (Nerves)
    Whole nerve surrounded by a tough fibrous sheath.

    360
  36. Functional role of a Synapses
    -determine the direction of information flow through the nervous system

    351
  37. Action Potential (Impulse)
    • -positive ions- sodium and potassium
    • -depolarization- 
    • -resting membrane-
    • -repolarization-

    352
  38. Monosynaptic Reflex
    -no interneuron between the sensory neuron and the motor neuron

    361
  39. Polysynaptic Reflex
    -one or more interneurons are part of the reflex pathway between the sensory and motor neurons.

    361
  40. Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
    • -autoimmune disease
    • -myelin is attacked by the body's own immune system
    • -symptoms: blindness, weakness, clumsiness/balance, slurred speech, bladder inconsistence, fatigue, depression
    • -myelin sheaths in the CNS are destroyed, forming scleroses

    364, worksheet
  41. View of the Brain Stem
    383
  42. View of Brain sectioned midsagittally
    390
  43. View of the Brain diencephalon
    390

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