Theatrical Design and Production Full Vocab

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Theatrical Design and Production Full Vocab
2013-07-16 20:53:07
Theatrical Design Production Full Vocab

Theatrical Design and Production Full Vocab
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  1. 1-inch centers
    the centers of adjacent elements, such as holes, are spaced 1 inch apart
  2. 4-in/2-out
    a mixer device with four inputs and two outputs
  3. 6-inch centers
    those spaced 6 inches apart
  4. 18-inch centers
    those spaced 18 inches apart
  5. accessory
    in costuming, anything other than clothing that is worn or carried, including wigs, hats, footwear, jewelry, and similar items
  6. acoustics
    the sound-transmission characteristics of a room, space, or material; also, the science that studies these qualities
  7. acrylic
    a plastic most readily identified by its trade name Plexiglas; available in rigid sheets and in liquid form (for us as a casting resin)
  8. acting areas
    those areas of the stage on which specific scenes, or parts of scenes, are played
  9. additive color mixing
    the transmission of light of varying hues to the eye and the brain's interpretation of the ratio of the light mixture as a specific hue
  10. adjustable arc-joint pliers
    long-handled pliers with a series of jaw pivot points that provide a variety of jaw-opening ranges; used for gripping square and round objects with a great deal of leverage; also known as alligator pliers
  11. adjustable-end wrench
    generally known by the trade name Crescent Wrench, the adjustable-end wrench has smooth jaws that adjust to fit almost any small to medium-sized nut; used to tighten bolts and nuts
  12. adjustable wood clamps
    a wooden clamp with two adjustable faces; the jaws can be adjusted to various angles that are useful in holding furniture frames while the glued joints are drying
  13. aerial perspective
    an optical phenomenon in which objects that are farther away appear less sharply in focus and less fully saturated in color
  14. air caster
    a nonwheeled caster that lifts objects and holds them up using high-volume, low-pressure compressed air; three to four air castes are used to raise most objects; the one-foot-diameter air casts, load rated at 2000 pounds, is the standard size used in theatrical production
  15. aircraft cable
    extremely strong, flexible, multistrand, twisted metal cable; 1/8-inch aircraft cable is frequently used for flying heavy scenery because it has a breaking strength of approximately one ton
  16. Allen wrench
    an L-shaped piece of steel rod with a hexagonal cross-sectional shape; used for working with Allen-head screws and bolts
  17. alligator pliers
    adjustable arc-joint pliers
  18. ambient
    surrounding or background
  19. ampere
    the unit of measurement of electrical current
  20. amplifier
    a device used to boost the signal received from a transducer to a level that will drive a loudspeaker
  21. amplitude
    synonym for loudness
  22. analog
    in electronics, a circuit or device in which the output varies as a continuous function of the input
  23. analogous colors
    color that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel; also known as related colors
  24. aniline dye
    transparent pigment made from aniline, a poisonous derivative of benzene; characterized by brilliant hues and full saturation; a strong solution can be made by putting one teaspoon of dye into a quart of boiling water
  25. animal glue
    a natural glue (a by-product of the meat-packing industry) used for securing muslin to flat frames and as a binder in dry pigment and binder scene paint
  26. anvil
    a heavy, solid metal device with variously shaped faces; used in conjunction with a mechanic's or blacksmith's hammer for shaping metal
  27. applique
    a decorative item attached to a basic form
  28. apron
    the flat extension of the stage floor that projects from the proscenium arch toward the audience
  29. arc
    an electric current that leaps the gap between two closely placed electrodes
  30. arc welder
    a welder that uses an electrical arc to melt the metals being welded. The approximately 1/8-inch-diameter electrode melts and flows into the welding zone to provide filler metal
  31. arena stage
    a stage completely surrounded by the audience
  32. armature
    a basic skeletal form that holds the covering materials in the desired shape or alignment
  33. artistic director
    person responsible for the major artistic decisions of a theatrical production company--hiring of production personnel, selection of season, and so on
  34. assignable
    in this case, the property of being able to be assigned; e.g., an assignable input may be connected to any output or any number of outputs
  35. asymmetrical balance
    a sense of equipoise achieved through dynamic tension created by the juxtaposition of dissimilar design elements
  36. atom
    the smallest particle of a chemical element that retains the structural properties of that element
  37. atomic theory
    a generally accepted theory concerning the structure and composition of substances
  38. attenuate
    to decrease or lessen
  39. auditorium
    the seating area from which the audience observes the action of a play
  40. Auger bits
    spiral-shaped bits designed to be used with a brace; used for drilling holes (1/4 inch to approximately 2 inches in diameter) in wood
  41. backing
    flats, drops, or draperies placed on the offstage side of doors and similar openings to prevent the audience from seeing backstage
  42. backpainting
    literally to paint on the back. You paint the back, or reverse, side of the scenery or drop
  43. backsaw
    a fine-toothed (twelve to fourteen teeth per inch) crosscut saw with a stiffening spine on its back; used with a miter box to make accurate miter cuts
  44. balance
    the arrangement of parts of a composition to create a sense of restfulness; also, to adjust the loudness and equalization levels of individual signals while mixing; to achieve an appropriate blend
  45. balanced line
    a sound cable in which two insulated conductors are wrapped in a braided or foil shield
  46. bald cap
    a latex cap that covers a person's hair
  47. ball peen hammer
    a hammer made of hardened steel with a round ball on the back of its head; used for bending and shaping metal and seating rivets
  48. baluster
    a vase-shaped vertical member that supports the handrail of a staircase rail
  49. band saw
    a stationary power saw with a narrow continuous loop (or band) blade that passes through a table which supports the work; used for making curvilinear cuts
  50. banister
    the vertical member that supports the handrail of a staircase rail
  51. bar clamp
    similar to a pipe clamp except a notched bar is substituted for the pipe
  52. barn door
    an accessory for a Fresnel spotlight whose movable flippers are swung into the beam to control it
  53. base coat
    the first coat of the finished paint job; provides the basic color for the ensuing texture coats
  54. base-reflex speaker enclosure
    an insulated box with a carefully designed hole or port in front that synchronizes the phase of the rearward speaker excursion with its forward excursion to reinforce the base frequencies
  55. batten
    a wooden dowel or metal pipe (generally 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 inches in diameter) attached to the onstage lines from a ropeset or counterweight system. Scenery is attached to it
  56. batten-clamp drop
    a drop that can be quickly attached to or removed from a batten by the use of batten clamps
  57. battened butt joint
    two pieces of lumber butted end to end with a small piece of similar width attached directly above the joint
  58. beam angle
    that point where the light emitted by an instrument is diminished by 50 percent when compared with the output of the center of the beam
  59. beam projector
    a lensless instrument with a parabolic primary reflector and a spherical secondary reflector that creates an intense shaft of light with little diffusion
  60. belt clamp
    a woven nylon belt with a ratchet device to tighten the belt around the work; used to clamp irregularly shaped objects
  61. belt sander
    a handheld, portable power tool that uses belts of sandpaper for rapid sanding of (primarily) wood
  62. bench grinder
    a stationary stand- or bench-mounted power tool consisting of an electric motor with shafts extending from either end; various grinding and buffing wheels, as well as wire brushes, can be mounted on the shafts to perform a variety of grinding, buffing, and polishing functions
  63. bench sander
    a stationary stand- or bench-mounted power tool that consists of a combination of a belt and a disk sander; used to bevel or smooth the surface or edges of wood and some plastics
  64. Bevel protractor
    measuring device similar to the combination square except that the angle of the blade is adjustable; used for marking angles between 0 and 90 degrees
  65. Bevel set
    a measuring device similar to a tri square except that the angle between the blade and handle is adjustable; used for transferring angles from one piece of work to another
  66. bidirectional
    two directions; a microphone pickup pattern primarily receptive to the front and back
  67. binder
    an adhesive to paint that "glues" the pigment and fillers to the painted material after the vehicle has evaporated
  68. blackout
    when the stage is completely dark. The stage lights are out and no other lights are on.
  69. bleeding
    the capillary migration of an applied dye or paint to an area outside the area to which it is applied
  70. blend
    a combination of more than one type of fiber; they are created to take advantage of the best properties of all fibers in it
  71. blocking
    the actors' movements on the stage
  72. block out
    in makeup, to cover with soap, spirit gum, wax, material, or preformed plastic film so that no hair is evident
  73. block plane
    a small plane with a shallow (approximately 15 to 20 degrees) blade angle; used to smooth across the grain of wood
  74. blueline
    to copy drawings made on tracing vellum; the lines are printed in blue or, sometimes, black; also known as the diazo process
  75. blueprint
    a drawing reproduction technique in which the background is blue and the lines are white; frequently used as a misnomer for blueline
  76. board foot
    a unit of measurement equivalent of a piece of stock lumber that is 12 inches long, 12 inches wide, and 1 inch thick
  77. board operators
    the electricians who run the light board during rehearsals and performances
  78. bobbinet
    a transparent, open, hexagonal weave material; used as a glass substitute, diffusion drop, net backing for cutout drops, and similar applications
  79. bobby pin
    a hair pin made of springy flat metal wire bent in a tight U shape. The legs--one straight, the other wavy--touch each other and provide the clamping power to hold the hair in place. Generally used with shorter hair.
  80. bodice
    the upper part of a woman's dress
  81. bogus paper
    a heavy, soft, absorbent paper; similar to blotter paper
  82. bolt cutter
    heavy-duty shears with a great deal of leverage; used to cut through bolts and mild-steel round stock up to 1/2 inch in diameter
  83. book
    to fold hinged flats together so that they resemble a book
  84. book ceiling
    two large flats about the same width as the proscenium arch, stored in a booked position in the flies; when needed to create a ceiling, they are opened and lowered onto the walls of the set
  85. boomerang
    • a rolling scaffold with several levels; used for painting vertical scenery
    • a device to hold color media in a followspot
  86. borderlights
    any lights hung above the stage, behind the borders (horizontal masking pieces). In this context, they were striplights--long, narrow, troughlike fixtures usually containing eight to twelve individual lamps
  87. borders
    wide, short, framed or unframed cloth drops suspended over the stage to prevent the audience from seeing above the stage. In the Restoration Theatre, borders normally matched the decorative treatment on the wings and drops. In modern practice, they are frequently made of black, unpainted velour
  88. bottom hanger iron
    flying hardware; a metal strap iron with a D ring at the top and a hooked foot at the bottom; used at the bottom of heavy flats to support the load under compression
  89. box
    to pour paint back and forth between buckets to ensure a complete and uniform mix
  90. box-end wrench
    a wrench with a closed, toothed head that must be fit over the head of the bolt or nut; used to tighten bolts and nuts
  91. box nail
    nail with a narrower shaft than a common nail, to reduce the chance of splitting the lumber
  92. brace
    a hand-cranked drill used for turning auger bits; used for drilling large-diameter holes in wood
  93. brace cleat
    bracing hardware attached to the stile on the back of a flat to provide means for securing a stage brace to the flat
  94. breathes
    a term that defines a material's ability to transmit heat, air, and water vapor
  95. brocade
    fabric similar to damask but light in weight; woven patterns achieved by weaving high-luster yarn into a matte-finish background can be either raised or flat; used for making costumes, upholstery, and decorative drapery
  96. bulb
    the Pyrex glass or synthetic quartz container for a lamp filament and gaseous environment; synonymous with envelope
  97. burn
    to record on a CD
  98. butcher paper
    a medium-weight brown paper, available in 36-inch-wide rolls; also known by its trade name, Kraft paper
  99. butt joint
    a wood joint; two pieces of wood are square cut and fit together end to end, end to edge, edge to edge, end to face, or edge to face
  100. butt weld
    a welded metal joint; the pieces being welded are joined edge to edge
  101. cabinet drawing
    a type of detail drawing that subscribes to the principles of oblique drawing except that all depth measurements are reduced by one-half or some similar ratio such as 1:4
  102. call
    to tell specific crew members when to perform their cues
  103. canvas head block
    a block of material in the shape of a head, covered with canvas. Wigs are pinned to it for styling and storage
  104. capacitance
    the electrical capacity of a condenser, or capacitor
  105. carcass
    the foundation structure of something, for example, the framework of a cabinet
  106. cardioid
    a heart-shaped pickup pattern that primarily picks up sounds in front of, and slightly to the sides of, the microphone
  107. card stock
    a thick cardboard, similar in thickness to 3x5 notecards and file folders
  108. Carpenter's level
    a 2- to 3-foot piece of wooden, steel, or aluminum I beam with glass-tube spirit levels at either end and the middle; used to determine true horizontal and vertical
  109. Carpenter's rule
    a folding wood rule
  110. Carpenter's vise
    a vise for holding wood; attached to a workbench, one or both faces are covered with hardwood to prevent the vise from scratching, denting, or marring the surface of the work
  111. carriage
    the part of a stair unit that supports the tread and risers
  112. carriage bolt
    a bolt whose upper face has a rounded surface and whose underside has a slightly tapered square collar a little wider than the diameter of the bolt shaft; used to join wood to wood or wood to metal
  113. cartooning
    the process of transferring line work (and color blocks) from the painter's elevations to the scenery
  114. casein
    a natural or synthetically derived phosphoprotein--a chief component of milk
  115. casein paint
    a paint with a casein binder; has good covering power, is water-resistant when fully dry, and can usually be thinned with a ratio of between two and four parts water to one part paint concentrate
  116. casket lock
    a heavy- duty hidden lock used to hold platforms together and for similar applications
  117. cassette tape
    audio recorder tape, also used in computer storage
  118. caster
    a wheel/axle device attached to platforms and the like to make them roll; for theatrical use, they should have hard rubber tires, a load rating of at least 300 pounds, and sturdy construction
  119. casting resins
    any number of liquid plastics used for casting forms in molds
  120. cavea
    roman term for auditorium
  121. C clamp
    a clamp composed of a U-shaped frame with a threaded shaft; work is clamped between a pressure plate at one end of the U and the toe of the shaft; used for a wide variety of jobs, such as holding work together while parts are being assembled or while glue joints are drying
  122. ceiling plate
    flying hardware; a flat metal plate with an O ring in the center; attached to the primary structural members of ceiling flats to provide a means of attaching the flying lines to the ceiling
  123. centerline
    a leader line that runs perpendicular to the set line from the midpoint or center of the opening of the proscenium arch
  124. center-line section
    a sectional drawing with the cutting plane located on the center line of the stage and auditorium; used to show the height of the various elements of the stage and theatre and any pertinent set pieces
  125. center punch
    a pointed tool made of hard steel; used for indenting shallow holes in wood and metal
  126. centrifugal force
    force that moves away from the center; for example, the circular motion of electrons spinning around a nucleus generates it
  127. chalk line
    a metal or plastic housing holding a long piece of twine and filled with dry scenic pigment; used for marking straight lines
  128. channel control
    an electronic patching system in which one or more dimmers can be assigned to a control channel, which in turn controls the intensity level of those dimmers
  129. character
    the distinctive qualities , traits, and personality of a person, place, or thing. Also, the emotional quality (e.g., soft, hard, harsh, sensuous) of a line
  130. chiffon
    a sheer, usually translucent, cloth frequently made from rayon or silk; used for scarves and diaphanous blouses or gowns
  131. chopper
    a shutter
  132. chroma
  133. chuck
    the adjustable jawed clamp at the end of a drill that holds the drill bits
  134. circuit
    a conductive path through which electricity flows; also, to connect a lighting instrument to a stage circuit
  135. circuit breaker
    a device to protect a circuit from an overload; it has a magnetic device that trips opens to break circuity continuity
  136. circular saw
    a portable circular-bladed saw; the angle and depth of cut is variable; used to cross- and angle-cut as well as rip stock and plywood
  137. claw hammer
    a hammer with two sharply curved claws projecting from the back of its head that facilitates nail removal; used for driving nail
  138. cleat
    a piece of wood used to brace, block, or reinforce
  139. clip art
    digitized pictures that can be transferred, or clipped, from the original program into a document on which you are working
  140. clothesline
    a small-diameter cotton rope; not used for raising or suspending loads, but is the standard rope for lash lines and is used as the operating rope for traveling drapes (travelers)
  141. clout nail
    a wedge-shaped nail made of soft iron used to attach cornerblocks and keystones to the frame of a flat; it is driven through the wood onto a steel backing plate, which curls the end of the nail back into the lumber
  142. club
    in context, refers to night clubs in which high-energy music (live or pre-recorded) is the prime attraction
  143. coated box nail
    a box nail with an adhesive applied to the shaft that tightly bonds the nail to the wood
  144. cobbler
    one who makes shoes
  145. cold chisel
    a chisel made of hard steel; used for cutting or shearing mild steel and nonferrous metals
  146. cold-press finish
    a slight surface texture achieved by pressure paper between cold rollers; no oil residue results, so the paper can be used with transparent watercolor, designer's gouache, acrylic, markers, pencils, pastel, and so forth
  147. collage
    a picture made of various materials (e.g., paper, cloth) glued on a surface; can include drawn or photographic images as well
  148. color
    a perception created in the brain by the stimulation of the retina by light waves of certain lengths; a generic term applied to all light waves contained in the visible spectrum
  149. color frame
    a lightweight metal holder for color media that fits in a holder at the front of a lighting instrument
  150. color media
    colored plastic, gel, or glass filters used to modify the color of light
  151. combination square
    a 12-inch steel rule with a movable handle angled at 45 and 90 degrees; used for marking those two angles, and the rule can be used for measuring
  152. commando
    a lightweight cotton fabric with a short, feltlike, almost matted pile; available in two weights and widths, the heavy-weight is suitable for stage drapery; the material face is generally too susceptible to wear for use as an upholstery fabric; also known as duvetyn
  153. common nail
    nail with a large head and thick shank; used for heavier general construction
  154. complementary
    two hues that, when combined, theoretically yield white in light or black in pigment; colors that are opposite to each other on a color wheel. In practice, mixing these pigment colors results in complex dark grays, not true black
  155. composition
    an arrangement of parts to create a whole
  156. compound curves
    a surface that curves in more than one direction (like a ball) or changes the radius of its curve (like a playground slide)
  157. compressor
    a pump that drives air into a tank; the output pressure from the tank is controlled by a valve called a regulator
  158. concentric revolving stages
    a revolving stage with, usually, two sections, one rotating inside the other
  159. concert
    in context, primarily refers to touring rock and country western shows
  160. condensing lens
    a device that condenses the direct and reflected light from a source and concentrates it on the slide-plane aperture of a projector
  161. conduit
    thin-wall metal (aluminum or steel) tubing; used as a housing for electrical wiring and decorative stage material
  162. conduit bender
    a tool for bending conduit
  163. cones
    nerve cells in the retina that are sensitive to bright light; they respond to red, blue, or green light
  164. connecting strip
    an electrical gutter or wireway that carries a number of stage circuits; the circuits terminate on the connecting strip in female receptacles
  165. constructed sound
    any sound created by editing, manipulating, or changing previously recorded sound
  166. construction adhesive
    also called panel adhesive; an adhesive contained in a caulking tube; dispensed with a caulking gun; available in a number of formulations for use in gluing wall panels to studs (wood to wood), Styrofoam to wood, wood to metal, and so forth
  167. construction calendar
    a calendar that details when various technical elements of a production will be constructed
  168. construction crew
    those who build the set, move it into the theatre, and set it up onstage
  169. construction line
    in a two-line-weight system, a thick line .5mm thick (in pencil) or .0020 to .0025 inch thick (in pen)
  170. contact cement
    an adhesive for bonding nonporous surfaces together; surfaces bond as soon as they come in contact with each other
  171. continental parallel
    a platform made of a folding framework of nonvariable height; the top and center supports are removable; the frame folds into a more compact unit than does the standard parallel
  172. contrast
    the juxtaposition of dissimilar elements
  173. coping saw
    a lightweight handsaw composed of a U-shaped frame with a narrow, fine-toothed (sixteen to eighteen teeth per inch) replaceable blade; used for making curvilinear cuts in thin plywood and lumber
  174. corduroy
    a cotton material whose pile ridges, called wales, alternate with a low-luster backing; available in a wide variety of wale widths and depths; heavier weights are used for upholstery, while lighter weights are used in costuming; waleless corduroy is similar to a short-nap velour, with similar uses
  175. cornerblock
    a triangular-shaped piece of 1/4-inch plywood used to reinforce the joint between a stile and a rail of a flat
  176. corner brace
    a diagonal internal framing member that helps keep a flat square
  177. corner plate
    a L-shaped piece of 1/16 inch galvanized steel, predrilled for use with flat-head wood screws; used to reinforce corners of doors, windows, and so on
  178. corrugated fasteners
    corrugated strips of metal used primarily to hold lightweight frames together
  179. costume designer
    person responsible for the design, visual appearance, and function of the costumes, accessories, and makeup
  180. costumer
    person responsible for the construction of the costumes and supervision of the costume shop
  181. cotton canvas
    a durable lightweight, coarse-weave material; used for covering platforms and making ground cloths
  182. cotton duck
    a lightweight cotton canvas, used more in costumes than some construction
  183. cotton linters
    the short hairs covering the cotton seed
  184. cotton rep
    a tough cotton fabric with a ribbed finish similar to a narrow, short-nap corduroy; good for stage draperies, costumes, and upholstery
  185. counterweight arbor
    a metal cradle that holds counterbalancing weights used in flying
  186. crash
    in reference to hard drives, to become inoperative. Data cannot usually be retrieved from a hard drive after this event
  187. crepe
    a thin, crinkle-finished, soft cloth usually made from rayon, silk, or fine cotton; frequently used for women's blouses
  188. crescent wrench
    adjustable-end wrench
  189. crosscut saw
    a handsaw with an approximately 26-inch blade whose angle-sharpened teeth bend outward so that the kerf is wider than the blade designed to cut across the grain of the wood. Crosscut saws with ten to twelve teeth per inch are suitable for most scenic purposes
  190. crossover network
    an electronic device that splits the signal from the amplifier into frequency ranges most appropriate for use by woofers, mid-range speakers, and tweeters
  191. crowbar
    a round metal bar with flattened metal claws similar to those on a claw or rip hammer on one end and a tapered wedge on the other
  192. cue
    a directive for action, for example, a change in the lighting
  193. cueing
    designing the light cues. Manipulating, and recording, the distribution, intensity, movement, and color of the lights for each cue to create the appropriate look for that moment in the play
  194. cure
    to harden and reach full strength (in reference to adhesive)
  195. cut awl
    a portable power saw with a reciprocating blade mounted in a swiveling head; available with a variety of blades to make intricate curvilinear cuts in materials ranging from fabric to wood, paper, and plastic
  196. cut list
    a list of the color media required for the lighting design for a particular production categorized by hue and size; used to assist in ordering and cutting the color media for a lighting design
  197. cutoff saw
    a semiportable stand-mounted circular-bladed power saw that can be equipped with a wood or metal cutting blade for square and angle cutting of lumber or metal stock; can be set up for cutting either wood (wooden table without holding clamps) or metal (metal table with holding clamps); also known as a motorized miter box
  198. cutout line
  199. cutter
    person who pins patterns to fabrics and cuts the material
  200. cutting plane
    the plane at which an object is theoretically cut to produce a sectional view
  201. cyanoacrylate cement
    a powerful, rapid-bonding adhesive that will bond almost anything; generically known by the trade names Super Glue, Krazy Glue, and so forth
  202. cyc light
    a lensless instrument with an eccentric reflector used to create a smooth wash of light on a cyc or skytab from a close distance
  203. cyclorama
    a large drop used to surround the stage
  204. Dado head
    a specialty circular saw blade consisting of a set of toothed blades that sandwich a chisel-like chipper. The blades smooth-cut the outside edges of the kerf while the chipper gouges out the wood between the blades. The distance between the blades is variable; used with table and radial-arm saws.
  205. Dado joint
    a wood joint made by cutting a notch or groove in the face of one piece of lumber to receive the edge of another piece of stock
  206. Damask
    rich-appearing cloth with raised patterns of high-luster yarn that are normally woven into the matte finish of the background cloth; used for making costumes, upholstery, and decorative drapery
  207. dead hang
    to suspend without means of raising or lowering
  208. dead lift
    to lift without counterbalancing
  209. decibel
    a unit for expressing the intensity of sounds; an increase or decrease of one of these units is just about the smallest change in loudness that the human ear can detect
  210. decking
    the covering surface of a structure on which people will walk
  211. decorative prop
    any item that is used to enhance the setting visually but is not specifically touched by an actor, such window curtains, pictures, doilies, table lamps, bric-a-brac, and so forth
  212. delay
    refers to the time interval that the second part of a split time fade follows the first
  213. demi-mask
    a mask, normally mounted on a stick, that covers half the face
  214. denim
    a coarsely woven cotton or cotton blend twill
  215. designer's cue sheet
    a form used by the lighting designer to record pertinent information (dimmer levels, timing, "go" point, and so forth) about every cue in the production
  216. design style
    a recognizable pattern of compositional elements that provides a distinctive reflection of the social and political history of the time
  217. detail drawings
    drawings that describe the detail of objects. Usually drawn in a fairly large scale, normally between 3/4inch=1foot and 1 1/2inch=1foot.
  218. detailing
    trim, appliques, buttons, ribbons, braid, and so forth attached to a garment to enhance its appearance
  219. diagonal cutters
    pliers with beveled cutting faces on the jaw rather than flat gripping faces; used for cutting soft wire
  220. diffuse
    to soften the appearance of light by using a translucent filtering element to scatter the light rays
  221. digital tape recording
    a form of recording in which the audio information is stored on the magnetic tape as binary information rather than an analog signal
  222. digitizing tablet
    an electro-mechanical device that converts the pressure of a stylus on a flat plane (tablet) into binary information that can be understood by the computer
  223. dimension
    the relative length and width of a line
  224. dimmer
    an electrical device that controls the intensity of a light source connected to it
  225. dimmer circuit
    an electrical circuit terminating on one end at a dimmer. The other end terminates at either a patch panel or onstage; synonymous with stage circuit when it terminates onstage
  226. director
    person responsible for interpreting the script, creating a viable production concept, and directing the actors
  227. discrete
    separate and complete; in context, pertaining to information represented by binary code
  228. distress
    to create a worn or aged appearance as with fabric, wood, or metal
  229. distributed dimming
    a concept in which dimmers are placed at the point of use--close to where the fixture to be dimmed is located--rather than in a centralized dimmer rack
  230. double-headed nails
    nails with two heads; they are driven into the wood until the lower head is flush with the surface, leaving the upper head exposed so that it can be pulled out easily; used for scaffolding or any temporary structure that needs to be dismantled quickly
  231. double plano-convex lens train
    two plano-convex lenses placed with their curved surfaces facing each other; creates a system that has a shorter focal length than either of its component lenses
  232. double whip
    a block and tackle configuration that provides a 2:1 mechanical advantage
  233. douser
    a mechanical dimming device used in followspots
  234. dowel
    a short cylinder of hardwood, usually birch
  235. doweled joint
    a butt joint that is internally supported by dowel pegs
  236. drape
    a vertical element of heavy fabric that frames the sides of a window or an archway
  237. draw to scale
    to produce a likeness that is a proportional reduction of an object
  238. Dremel tool
    a hand-held router similar to a dentist's drill that can be equipped with a number of bits for grinding, cutting, or carving of wood, metal, and plastic
  239. dress
    to place decorative props such as curtains, doilies, knickknacks, or magazines on the set to help make the environment look lived in and provide clues to the personalities of the characters who inhabit the set. Also, to work with hair or wig to create a specific style or look
  240. dressers
    costume-crew personnel who assist actors in putting on their costumes
  241. dress rehearsal
    a run-through with all technical elements, including costumes and makeup
  242. drill press
    a stationary bench or stand-mounted power drill with a variety of speeds. The chuck will generally hold bits up to 1/2inch in diameter
  243. drop
    a large expanse of cloth, usually muslin or scenic canvas, on which something (a landscape, sky, street, room) is usually painted
  244. drop box
    a small connecting strip, generally containing four to eight circuits, that can be clamped to a boom or a pipe
  245. drum winch
    in this case, a motorized system in which steel cables are wound around a drum or cylinder and the taking up, or letting out, of the cables is controlled by the rotation of the drum. Each one is equipped with a motor, gearbox, and brake.
  246. dry brushing
    a painting technique frequently used to create a wood-grain appearance; done by slightly charging a brush and lightly stroking it across the surface of the work
  247. drywall
    gypsum board typically used to cover interior walls in home construction; normally 1/2 inch thick, although other thicknesses are available
  248. Ducted-port speaker enclosure
    a speaker enclosure similar in operational theory to the bass-reflex enclosure except that a tube of specific diameter and length is substituted for the open hole, or port; it reinforces bass frequencies
  249. dust mask
    a device covering the nose and mouth that filters particulate matter from the air
  250. dutchman
    a 5- to 6-inch wide strip of cloth of the same material as the flat covering; used to hide the joints between flats in a wall unit
  251. Duvetyn
    Commando fabric
  252. effects head
    a motor-driven unit capable of producing crude moving images with a scenic projector
  253. electric
    any pipe that is used to hold lighting instruments
  254. electrical current
    the flow or movement of electrons through a conductor
  255. electrical potential
    the difference in electrical charge between two bodies; measured in volts
  256. electric glue pot
    a thermostatically controlled pot used for melting animal glue
  257. electric hand drill
    a portable, handheld power drill; some models have variable-speed and reverse controls; it generally accepts bit shanks up to 3/4inch in diameter
  258. electricians
    those who work on the stage lighting for a production
  259. electrician's cue sheet
    a form used by the board operator that contains the primary operating instructions for every lighting cue in the production
  260. electricity
    a directed flow of electrons used to create kinetic energy
  261. electric screwdriver
    a portable, hand-held power tool that resembles an electric hand drill; equipped with a variable-speed motor, a clutch, and a chuck that holds a screwdriver tip; used to invert and remove screws
  262. electron
    a negatively charged fundamental particle that orbits around the nucleus of the atom
  263. electronics
    the field of science and engineering concerned with the behavior and control of electrons within devices and systems, and the utilization of those systems
  264. elevator stage
    a large elevator used to shift large scenic elements or whole sets between the area beneath the stage and the stage
  265. elevator trap
    a small elevator used to shift small pieces of scenery, or an actor, from the basement underneath the stage to the stage or vice versa. Usually no larger than 4x4 or 4x6 feet. Also known as a disappearance trap.
  266. ellipsoidal reflector floodlight
    a lensless instrument with a conical ellipse reflector; used for lighting cycs and drops; also known as a scoop
  267. ellipsoidal reflector spotlight
    a lighting instrument characterized by hard-edged light with little diffusion; designed for long throws, it is manufactured with fixed and variable focal-length lenses; the light beam is shaped with internally mounted shutters
  268. Emery cloth
    fabric whose surface has been coated with abrasive grit; used for smooth wood, metal, and plastic
  269. enamel
    an oil-, lacquer-, or synthetic-base paint that has a hard surface and excellent covering power; it is usually formulated so that it dries with a smooth satin or gloss finish
  270. envelope
    the Pyrex glass or synthetic quartz container for a lamp filament and gaseous environment; synonymous with bulb
  271. epoxy
    an extremely strong, waterproof plastic most frequently used in the theatre as an adhesive and casting resin
  272. epoxy-resin adhesive
    a two-part epoxy-base adhesive available in a variety of formulations that enable the user to do gluing, filling, and painting
  273. equalizer
    an electronic device that selectively boosts or attenuates specific frequencies or ranges of frequencies
  274. extra
    a non-speaking part. A person who provides "visual dressing" for the scene
  275. eyebrow mask
    a thin piece of plastic film or latex glued over the eyebrow; also known as an eyebrow block
  276. Fade-in
    a gradual increase; in lighting, usually from darkness to a predetermined level of brightness; synonymous with fade-up
  277. fade-out
    a gradual decrease; in lightness, usually from a set level of brightness to darkness
  278. fader
    a device, usually electronic, that effects a gradual changeover from one circuit to another; in lighting it changes the intensity of one or more dimmer circuits; in sound it changes audio circuits or channels
  279. fade rate
    the amount of time it takes for a fade--either fade-up or fade-down--to be completed
  280. false proscenium
    a rigid framework covered with drapery material that is used to adjust the height and width of the proscenium arch. Sometimes unframed drapes are used to create a false proscenium
  281. faux finish
    using techniques with paints/varnishes to create the illusion of a particular type of surface or material; for example, painting wood to look like metal or stone
  282. FEL lamp
    lamps made in the United States are designated with a three-letter code that specifies all design criteria such as wattage, voltage, filament, and base type, color-temperature-rated life, and so forth. FEL specifies a very specific 1000 Watt lamp.
  283. felt
    a material made by matting together short fibers by the use of heat, water, and light pressure
  284. Ferrule
    the metal part of a brush that binds the bristles ot the handle
  285. field angle
    that point where the light output diminishes to 10 percent of the output of the center of the beam
  286. filament
    the light-producing element of a lamp; usually made of tungsten wire
  287. filler
    a material that creates opacity (covering power) in paint
  288. filler rod
    a metal piece of the same composition as the material being welded; used to replace the metal lost during welding or to fill a hole or groove in the work
  289. fillet weld
    a welded metal joint; made when the edge of one piece is welded to the face of another; both sides of the joint should be welded
  290. fill light
    the light or lights that fill the shadows created by the key light
  291. finish nail
    a nail with a slender shaft and minute head; designed to be drive below the surface of the wood so that the nail head can be hidden
  292. first electric
    the onstage pipe for lighting instruments that is closest, from the onstage side, to the proscenium arch
  293. five-quarter lumber
    a specialty lumber, straight grained and free from knots, that is 1 1/4 inches thick
  294. fixture
    a lighting instrument
  295. flange weld
    a welded metal joint; similar to a butt weld, except the edges of the material are bent up; the weld is made by melting the upturned flanges
  296. flannel
    a lightweight, loosely woven material usually made from soft-finish wool, wool blend, or cotton thread; used for men's and women's suits, trousers, and shirts
  297. flat
    a framework, normally made of wood or metal; usually covered with fabric, although a variety of other covering material may be used
  298. flat-head wood screw
    common screw with a flat head that is beveled on the underside to easily dig into the wood; used for attaching hardware (hinges, doorknobs) and joining various wood elements together
  299. flexible glue
    animal glue with glycerine added
  300. floor line
    the base of the vertical plane in a perspective drawing; for a proscenium sketch, it is usually drawn across the stage in contact with the upstage edge of the proscenium arch; in a thrust drawing, it is normally placed just outside the auditorium end of the thrust; in an arena sketch, it is usually placed in the aisle closest to the observer
  301. floor painting
    painting scenery--flats, drops, and so forth--on the floor rather than standing up or attached to a paint frame
  302. floor plate
    bracing hardware; a block of wood with a non-skid material (foam, rubber) attached to the bottom; the foot of a stage brace is attached to the top of it, and weights (sandbags, counterweights) are piled on to keep it from moving
  303. floor pocket
    a connecting box, usually containing three to six circuits, whose top is mounted flush with the stage floor
  304. floppy disk
    a thin piece of plastic coated with metal oxide, used to record the information stored in a computer's memory
  305. fluorocarbons
    a family of tough, durable, low-friction, nonstick plastics best known by the trade name Teflon; used in the theatre as a bearing surface where its slippery qualities can be used to advantage
  306. flush
    smooth, level, even
  307. flux
    a chemical that reduces surface oxidation and thus aids in soldering or welding
  308. fly
    to raise an object or person above the stage floor with ropes or cables
  309. fly cyc
    single drop, hung on a U-shaped pipe, that surrounds the stage on three sides
  310. fly gallery
    the elevated walkway where the pin rail is located
  311. fly loft
    the open space above the stage where the scenery and equipment are flown
  312. focal length
    the distance from the lens at which light rays converge to a point; for lenses used in stage lighting instruments, the focal length is usually measured in even inches
  313. focus
    to direct light from the lighting instruments to a specific area
  314. folding wood rule
    a 6-foot wooden rule, composed of twelve segments that fold into a unit 7.5 inches long; used for measuring lumber in scenic construction
  315. followspot
    a lighting instrument with a high-intensity, narrow beam; mounted in a stand that allows it to tilt and swivel so that the beam can "follow" an actor
  316. font
    a particular style or design of typeface
  317. footlights
    lights placed along the front end of the stage
  318. forced perspective
    a process that creates apparent depth in a set by angling the horizontal line
  319. foreshortening
    representing the lines of an object as shorter than they actually are in order to give the illusion of proper relative size
  320. form
    space enclosed within a line or lines that meet or cross; also, elements that have similar physical characteristics, such as arena theatres, thrust stages, proscenium stages, and so forth
  321. found theatre space
    structures originally designed for some other purpose that have been converted into performing spaces
  322. framing square
    a large steel L, typically 16 inches on the bottom leg and 24 on the vertical leg; used for checking the accuracy of 90-degree corner joints
  323. free electrons
    an electron that has broken away from its "home" atom to float free
  324. French enamel varnish (FEV)
    a mixture of dye and shellac; made by mixing alcohol-based leather dye (e.g., Fiebing's Leather Dye) with shellac that has been reduced (1:1) with denatured alcohol
  325. frequency
    the rate at which an object vibrates; measured in hertz (cycles per second)
  326. Fresnel lens
    a type of step lens with the glass cut away from the convex face of the lens
  327. Fresnel spotlight
    a spotlight that produces a soft, diffused light; the Fresnel lens is treated on the plano side to diffuse the light
  328. front elevation
    a front view of each wall segment of the set, including all detail such as windows, doors, pictures, and trim
  329. front-of-house
    the area in an auditorium that is close to the stage
  330. front projection screen
    an opaque, highly reflective, usually white material used to reflect a projected image; the projector is placed on the audience side of the screen
  331. full-scale drawings
    scale drawings made actual size
  332. functional model
    a three-dimensional thumbnail sketch of a scenic design; normally built on a scale of 1/4 or 1/2 inch to 1 foot; usually made from file folders or similar cardboard; also known as a white model
  333. funnel
    an accessory for a Fresnel spotlight that masks the beam to create a circular pattern also called a snoot or top hat
  334. fuse
    a device to protect a circuit from an overload; it has a soft metal strip that melts, breaking circuit continuity
  335. garbage or slop paint
    any paint left over from previous paint jobs; the various paints are mixed and neutralized to create a medium-gray or light-brown hue; frequently used for a prime coat
  336. gel
    • to put a color filter into a color frame and insert it in the color-frame holder of a lighting instrument
    • generic name for the color media used in lighting instruments
  337. Gesso
    plaster of Paris in liquid state; approximately the consistency of sour cream; dries to a hard plaster finish
  338. gimp
    an ornamental flat braid or round cord used as trimming
  339. glaze
    a transparent, usually lightly tinted, layer of thin paint
  340. gloss
    highly reflective, mirrorlike
  341. gobo
    a thin metal template inserted into an ellipsoidal reflector spotlight to create a shadow pattern of light
  342. graded base coat
    a base coat that gradually changes hue or value over the height or width of the painted surface
  343. grand drape
    the curtain that covers the opening of the proscenium arch
  344. grand rag
    slang synonym for grand drape
  345. grand valance
    a teaser or border made of the same material as the grand drape; used in conjunction with the grand drape, it masks the scenery and equipment just upstage of the proscenium arch
  346. graphic equalizer
    an equalizer with individual slide controls affecting specific, usually fairly narrow, segments of the sound spectrum; so called because the position of the individual controls graphically displays a picture of the equalization of the full sound spectrum
  347. graphite
    a soft carbon similar to the lead in a pencil; sticks can be purchases in most art supply stores
  348. grid
    a network of steel I beams supporting elements of the counterweight system
  349. grid transfer
    transferring a design from an elevation to the scenery by use of a scale grid on the elevation and a full-scale grid on the scenery
  350. grommet
    a circular metal eyelet used to reinforce holes in fabric
  351. grommet set
    a hole punch, a small anvil, and a crimping tool; used to seat grommets
  352. ground plan
    a scale mechanical drawing in the form of a horizontal offset section with the cutting plane passing at whatever level, normally a height of four feet above the stage floor, required to produce the most descriptive view of the set
  353. ground row
    generally low, horizontal flats used to mask the base of cycs or drops; frequently painted to resemble rows of buildings, hedges, or similar visual elements
  354. group
    the grouping of two or more dimmers/channels under one controller
  355. gusset
    a triangular piece of material used to reinforce a corner joint
  356. hacksaw
    an adjustable frame handsaw with an extremely fine-toothed (twenty to twenty-five teeth per inch) replaceable blade; used for cutting material
  357. hair pin
    a piece of round metal wire bent in a slightly opened U shape. Used with longer hair than bobby pins
  358. halved joint
    a wood joint made by removing half the thickness of both pieces of lumber in the area to be joined so that the thickness of the finished joint will be no greater than the stock from which it is made; also called a halved lap joint
  359. hand
    the quality and characteristics of a fabric that can be evaluated or defined by a sense of touch
  360. hand drill
    a hand-cranked device used for spinning drill bits; used for making small-diameter holes in wood
  361. hand power grinder
    a portable, handheld version of the bench grinder; useful on pieces that are too heavy or awkward to be worked with the bench grinder
  362. hand prop
    a small item that is handled or carried by an actor
  363. handrail
    the part of the stair rail that is grabbed with the hand; supported by the banister and newel posts
  364. hanger iron
    flying hardware; a metal strap with a D ring at the top; the hanger iron is attached to the top or bottom of the back of a flat, one end of a line is attached to the D ring, and the other end is attached to a counterweight batten
  365. hanging
    the process of placing lighting instruments in their specified locations
  366. hanging cards
    small segments of the light plot, typically pasted onto cardboard so it can be carried in an electrician's pants pocket, that detail all of the hanging information about a specific location such as the first electric or down left boom
  367. hanging crew
    those responsible for the hanging, circuiting, patching, focusing, and coloring of the lighting instruments; they are under the supervision of the master electrician
  368. hanging positions
    the various locations around the stage and auditorium where lighting instruments are placed
  369. hang out
    in this instance, hang out means that most wrinkles will disappear from the fabric if it is hung up
  370. hang tag
    the small label usually attached to the cardboard core of a bolt of fabric that indicates the percentages of various component fibers
  371. hardboard
    generic term for composition sheet goods such as Masonite and particle board
  372. Hard covered
    covered with a hard-surfaced material such as plywood. The hard surface is frequently covered with a fabric before painting
  373. hard drive
    a computer storage device; a spinning magnetic or optical disk on which data are stored and from which data can be retrieved
  374. hard teaser
    the horizontal element of the false proscenium; usually hung from a counterweighted baton so that its height can easily be adjusted
  375. hardware
    the physical elements of the computer and the various electronic equipment, printed circuit boards, and so forth inside the computer
  376. harmonics
    frequencies that are exact multiples of a fundamental pitch or frequency
  377. harmony
    a sense of blending and unity that is achieved when the various parts of a design fit together to create an orderly, congruous whole
  378. head
    • a housing that holds scenic-projector lenses in fixed positions to project images of a specific size
    • a high-quality electromagnet on a tape deck or tape recorder that is used to implant, retrieve, or erase electrical data
  379. head block
    a multisheave block with two or more pulley wheels, used to change the direction of all the ropes or cables that support the batten
  380. header
    a small flat that can be placed between two standard-sized flats to create a doorway or window
  381. heat gun
    a high-temperature air gun, visually similar to a handheld hair dryer
  382. heat welding
    the use of a heat gun to fuse two pieces of plastic
  383. heavy-duty hand drill
    similar to the electric hand drill, but with a heavier-duty motor; the chuck will generally accept bit shanks up to 1/2 inch in diameter
  384. hinged-foot iron
    bracing hardware similar to the rigid foot iron but hinged so that it can fold out of the way for storage
  385. hole saws
    saw-toothed cylinders of hardened stel with a drill bit in the center that is used to center the saw in the work; used with a power drill to make holes from 3/4 inch to 2 inches in diameter in wood that is 1 1/2 inches thick or less
  386. holidays
    sections of a painted surface that appear lighter than the rest of the surface because the area is either unpainted or the paint was too lightly applied.
  387. home page
    a site or addressable location on the Internet which contains information about (generally) a particular service, interest group, resource, or business
  388. homespun
    a coarse, loosely woven material usually made from cotton, linen, or wool
  389. honeycomb paper
    a manufactured paper product with a hexagonal structure similar to honeycomb
  390. hookup sheet
    a sheet containing pertinent information (hanging position, circuit, dimmer, color, lamp wattage, focusing notes) about every lighting instrument used in the production. Also known as an instrument schedule
  391. horizon line
    in perspective drawing, a line representing the meeting of the earth and the sky; normally drawn parallel to the top or bottom edge of the paper
  392. horizontal offset section
    a section drawing with a horizontal cutting plane; the cutting plane does not remain fixed--it varies to provide different views of important details
  393. horn
    a dispersion device attached to the front of a pressure driver to direct the sound emitted by the pressure driver into a specific pattern
  394. hot-melt glue gun
    a handheld electric tool that heats sticks of adhesive to make rapid-hold bonds on a wide range of materials, such as wood, plastic, paper, cloth, metal, dirt, sand, and so forth
  395. hot mirror
    a glass dichroic filter that reflects the infrared spectrum while allowing visible light to pass
  396. hot-press finish
    a slick, smooth texture achieved by pressing paper between hot rollers; this treatment leaves a thin layer of oil, which makes the paper unsuitable for use with transparent watercolors. It works well with designer's gouache, pencils, acrylic, and markers
  397. hot spot
    an intense circle of light created when a projector lens is seen through a rear projection screen
  398. hot-wire cutter
    a tool for cutting foam; it consists of a wire that is heated to incandescence
  399. House
    synonym for auditorium
  400. hue
    the qualities that differentiate one color from another
  401. hypercardioid
    a directional, narrow, elongated cardioid pickup pattern that all but eliminates pickup from anywhere except directly in front of, and for a short distance immediately behind, the microphone
  402. illustration board
    watercolor paper mounted on pressboard backing
  403. image of light
    a picture or concept of what the light should look like for a production
  404. immersion heater
    an electric heater that can be immersed in a bucket of liquid to heat it; used for heating water for starch mixtures, aniline dye, flameproofing solutions, and so forth
  405. impact wrench
    a power-driven tool that uses sockets to tighten or loosen bolts or nuts; may be either electric or pneumatic
  406. impedance
    resistance in an AC circuit; the only difference between it and resistance is that it is defined as resistance to the flow of an alternating current
  407. improved stage screw
    bracing hardware; an improved version of the stage screw consisting of a steel plug, threaded on the outside and inside, that is inserted into an appropriately size hole drilled into the stage floor. The screw screws into the plug, and the plug can be removed and a piece of dowel inserted into the floor to fill the hole
  408. infinite-baffle speaker enclosure
    an air-tight, heavily insulated box that absorbs the sound waves produced by the rearward excursion speaker; it is inefficient and requires a high-wattage amplifier to achieve satisfactory sound levels
  409. inner above
    the elevated area located directly above the inner below in the Elizabethan theatre
  410. inner below
    the curtained areas at the upstage edge of the playing area in the Elizabethan theatre
  411. instrument schedule
    a form used to record all of the technical data about each instrument used in the production; also known as a hookup sheet
  412. intensity
    the relative loudness of a sound
  413. iris
    a device with movable overlapping metal plates, used with an ellipsoidal reflector spotlight to change the size of the circular pattern of light
  414. irregular flat
    a flat having nonsquare corners
  415. isometric drawing
    a scaled mechanical drawing that presents a pictorial view of an object on three axes; the primary axis is perpendicular to the base line and the other two project from its base, in opposite directions, 30 degrees above the base line
  416. jack
    a triangular brace
  417. jig
    a device used to hold pieces together in proper positional relationship
  418. jog
    a flat less than 2 feet wide
  419. joists
    parallel beams that support flooring
  420. kerf
    the width of the cut made by a saw blade
  421. keyhole saw
    a handsaw with a narrow, tapering blade of ten to twelve teeth per inch; used for making curvilinear cuts in plywood and lumber
  422. key light
    the brightest light on a particular scene
  423. keystone
    a wedge or rectangular-shaped piece of 1/4-inch plywood used to reinforce the joint between a stile and toggle bar of a flat
  424. keystoning
    the linear distortion created when a projector is placed on some single other than perpendicular to the projection surface
  425. kit-cutting
    to cut all the individual pieces needed to make something before assembly is started; like a model airplane kit
  426. lacquer
    refined shellac or varnish with quick-drying additives
  427. lag screw
    large wood screw with a hexagonal or square head; used in situations where bolts are not practical, such as attaching something to a wall or floor
  428. laminating
    the process of gluing thin pieces of wood together to make a thicker pieces
  429. lap joint
    a wood joint made when the faces of two pieces of wood are joined
  430. lap weld
    a welded metal joint; made when the pieces being welded are overlapped
  431. lashing
    a method of joining scenery; a piece of 1/4-inch cotton clothesline (lash line) is served around special hardware on adjoining flats to hold them together
  432. lash-line cleat
    lashing hardware secured so that the pointed end projects over the inside edge of the stile
  433. lash-line eye
    lashing hardware with a hole through which the lash line passes, attached to the inside edge of the stile
  434. lash-line hook
    used for same purposes as a lash-line cleat, but has a hook instead of a point; used on extra-wide stiles or in situations that preclude the use of a lash-line cleat
  435. latch keeper
    S hook
  436. latex
    a natural or synthetic liquid plastic with the flexible qualities of natural latex or rubber; bonds well and is flexible
  437. latex cement
    a milky-white flexible cement
  438. latex paint
    a paint with a latex binder; has fair to good covering power, may or may not be water-resistant, and can be thinned very little, usually no more than one pint of water per gallon paint
  439. lathe
    a stationary, stand- or bench-mounted, variable-speed power tool that rapidly spins wood so that it can be carved with the use of special chisels. Can be used to turn foam.
  440. lauan
    also known as Phillipine mahogany; 1/8-inch lauan plywood is strong and quite flexible; commonly used as a flat-covering material and for covering curved-surface forms
  441. leader line
    in a two-line-weight system, a thin line .3mm thick (in pencil) or .010 to .0125 inch thick (in pen)
  442. leaf
    the movable flap of a hinge
  443. legitimate theatre
    refers to plays that rely on the spoken word to convey the message; does not include musicals, reviews, dance, opera, or concerts
  444. legs
    narrow, vertical stage drapes used for masking
  445. lensless projector
    a projector that works by projecting a shadow image without a lens, such as the Linnebach and curved-image projectors
  446. life
    in rendering, the qualities of brilliance, visual depth, and sparkle
  447. life mask
    a plaster mask of a person's face. A negative mold is made by covering the person's face with plaster of Paris or alginate. The negative mold is used to make a positive cast that is the life mask.
  448. lift jack
    a jack equipped with swivel casters, used to pick up and move platforms
  449. lighting area
    a cylindrical space approximately 8 to 12 feet in diameter and 7 feet high; they are located within acting areas to facilitate creating a smooth wash of light within the acting area
  450. lighting cue
    generally, some type of action involving lighting; usually the raising or lowering of the intensity of one or more lighting instruments
  451. lighting designer
    person responsible for the appearance of the lighting during the production
  452. lighting grid
    a network of pipes, usually connected in a grid pattern, from which lighting instruments and other equipment can be hung
  453. lighting instrument
    a device that produces a controllable light; for example, an ellipsoidal reflector spotlight or a Fresnel spotlight
  454. lighting key
    a drawing that illustrates the plan angle and color of the various sources that are illuminating the image of light
  455. lighting rehearsal
    a run-through, without actors, attended by the director, stage manager, lighting designer, and appropriate running crews to look at the intensity, timing, and placement of the various lighting cues
  456. lighting sectional
    a composite side view, drawn in scale, of the set showing the hanging position of the instruments in relation to the physical structure of the theatre, set, and stage equipment
  457. lighting template
    a guide for use in drawing lighting symbols
  458. light plot
    a scale drawing showing the placement of the lighting instruments relative to the physical structure of the theatre and the location of the set
  459. limited run
    a production run of predetermined length, for example, two weeks, six weeks, and so forth
  460. line
    the wires in low-voltage control systems; frequently called "lines" rather than "wires"
  461. line level
    a signal voltage range, approximately .75 to 1 volt; specified as a voltage range rather than one particular voltage because the voltage and current of the signal vary with the intensity and frequency of the sound
  462. line level setting
    the electronic equivalent of a loudness setting for the line level signal; an optimum line level signal would be loud enough to be distinctly heard by the next equipment in line--the power amplifier--but not so loud as to introduce distortion
  463. linen canvas
    an excellent flat-covering material; extremely durable, it accepts paint very well and doesn't shrink much; expensive
  464. line of vision
    the vertical line drawn from OP to the floor line in a perspective grid; it represents the line of sight from the observer to the vertical plane
  465. liner
    in makeup, any saturated color that is used as rouge, as eye shadow, or to create other areas of highlight or shadow
  466. lining
    painting narrow, straight lines; done with lining brushes and a straightedge
  467. livery
    identifiable clothing associated with a specific occupation or trade
  468. load
    a device that converts electrical energy into another form of energy; a lamp converts electrical energy to light and heat; an electric motor converts electricity to mechanical energy
  469. load-in
    the moving of scenery and associated equipment into the theatre and their positioning (setup) on the stage
  470. loading platform
    a walkway suspended just below the grid where the counterweights are loaded onto the arbor
  471. locking pliers
    generally known by the trade name Vise Grip; they are available in a wide variety of sizes and configurations; used for gripping and holding, the size of the jaw opening and amount of pressure applied by the jaws are adjustable by the screw at the base of the handle
  472. locking rail
    a rail that holds the rope locks for each counterweight set
  473. loft block
    a grooved pulley mounted on top of the grid, used to change the direction in which a rope or cable travels
  474. long-nose pliers
    pliers with long, tapering jaws; used for holding small items and bending very light wire; also called needle-nose pliers
  475. loudspeaker
    a transducer used to convert an electrical signal from an amplifier into audible sound
  476. Mac
    the hardware, operating systems/software, and peripherals based on the Apple Macintosh computer
  477. machine bolt
    bolt with a square or hexagonal head used to attach metal to metal
  478. machinist's view
    a vise with toothed steel faces; used to hold and clamp metal; can be used to hold wood, but the serrated steel faces will mar the surface unless protective blocks of wood are used to sandwich the work
  479. main drape
    synonym for grand drape
  480. mallet
    a hammer with a wooden, plastic, or rubber head; the wooden and plastic mallets are generally used for driving chisels; all three can be used for shaping thin metals
  481. managing director
    person responsible for the business functions of a theatrical production company--fund-raising, ticket sales, box office management
  482. manila rope
    a strong, yet flexible rope; used in the theatre for raising and suspending loads and as the operating line for counterweight systems
  483. mansions
    small scenic representations of the standard locations (heaven, hell, garden, palace, etc.) used in medieval plays
  484. margin line
    an extra-heavy-weight line that forms a border from the plate 1/2 inch in from the edge of the paper
  485. mask
    to block the audience's view--generally, of backstage equipment and space
  486. masonite
    a registered trade name for a sheet stock made from binder-impregnated wood pulp compressed into 4x8 foot sheets
  487. mass
    the three-dimensional manifestation of form
  488. master electrician
    person responsible for ensuring that the lighting equipment is hung, focused, and run according to written and verbal instructions from the lighting designer
  489. master seamer
    person responsible for costume construction and direct supervision of costume crews
  490. matte
    dull, nonreflective
  491. matte knife
    utility knife
  492. mechanical perspective
    a picture, in scale, drawn with drafting tools, that provides an illusion of depth
  493. mechanic's hammer
    a hammer with a heavy, soft metal head; used for shaping metal
  494. Merrow machine
    a machine that, in one operation, sews a seam, cuts both pieces of fabric about 1/4 inch from the seam, and makes an overcast stitch on the edge of both pieces of fabric to prevent raveling
  495. metal file
    any file with very fine teeth; used for smoothing metal
  496. microcassette tape
    audio recorder tape for use in small cassettes; used in computer storage
  497. microphone (mic)
    a transducer used to convert sound waves into electrical energy
  498. mid-range speaker
    a speaker designed to reproduce the middle range of audible frequencies--roughly 200 to 1000Hz
  499. MIG (metal inert gas) welder
    a welder that focuses a flow of inert gas (usually carbon dioxide or argon) on the welding zone to prevent or reduce oxidation of the weld; the electrode is a thin piece of wire automatically fed through the welding handle from a spool stored in the housing of the power unit
  500. mike
    to pick up a sound with a microphone; to place one or more microphones in proximity to a sound source (instrument, voice)
  501. mild steel
    a medium-length, easily worked ferrous metal that is easy to weld; the metal most commonly used in stage construction
  502. milliner
    one who constructs and styles hats
  503. miter
    an angle that is cut in a piece of wood or metal, usually in pairs to form a corner
  504. miter box
    a guide used with a backsaw to make accurate angle cuts in wood
  505. miter joint
    similar to a butt joint, but the edges to be joined are angle, rather than square, cut
  506. mix
    to blend the electronic signals created by several sound sources
  507. mixer
    an electronic device used to mix the output of a variety of sources and route the blended signal(s) on to other equipment; it can be used for both recording and playback
  508. model
    an object that is being used as the subject of a mold casting
  509. mold
    a matrix used to create a form
  510. molding cutter head
    a heavy cylindrical arbor in which a variety of matched cutter blades or knives can be fit; used with a table or radial-arm saw to cut decorative molding
  511. monkey wrench
    a heavy-weight, smooth-jawed adjustable wrench for use on large nuts or work that is too large for an adjustable-end wrench
  512. monofilament line
    a single-strand, transparent, monofilament line; sold as fishing line in sporting goods stores; also known as trick line
  513. mood
    the feeling of a play--comic, tragic, happy, and so forth
  514. mortise
    a square hole; used in conjunction with a tenon to make a mortise and tenon joint
  515. mortise and tenon joint
    a wood joint made by fitting a tenon (square peg) into a mortise (square hole)
  516. mortise drill bit
    a drill bit housed inside a square hollow chisel; used with a drill press to make square holes
  517. motorized miter box
    cutoff saw
  518. mouse
    an electromechanical device that controls the movement of a cursor on the computer screen; used by the operator to provide directives to the computer program
  519. mullion
    a vertical crossbar in a window
  520. multiplex
    • to transmit two or more messages simultaneously on a single channel or wire
    • to carry out several functions simultaneously in an independent but related manner
  521. muntin
    a horizontal crossbar in a window
  522. muslin
    a flat-surfaced, woven cotton fabric
  523. nail puller
    a tool with a movable jaw on one end for grasping nail heads and a movable slide hammer on the other to drive the jaws into the wood to grasp the nail; used to pull nails out
  524. needle-nose pliers
    long-nose pliers
  525. neutralization
    subtractive color mixing; the selective absorption of light as the result of mixing complementary pigment hues; the creation of gray
  526. neutron
    a fundamental particle in the structure of the nucleus of an atom; possesses a neutral charge
  527. Newel post
    the post at the bottom or top of a flight of stairs that terminates the handrail
  528. Nicopress tool
    a plierlike tool that crimps Nicopress sleeves onto wire rope or cable to make permanent, nonremovable friction clamps
  529. nonrepresentational design
    a style in which the portrayed elements do not represent physically identifiable objects
  530. nonspecific musical effect
    any sound effect that does not reinforce a readily identifiable source such as a doorbell or telephone
  531. notched joint
    a wood joint made by cutting a notch from a piece of lumber; the size of the notch is determined by the width and thickness of the other piece of stock that the notch will receive
  532. noxious
    harmful to one's health
  533. nucleus
    the central part of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons
  534. nut driver
    tool similar in appearance to a screwdriver with a cylindrical socket instead of a slot or Phillips head; used for tightening small hex (six-sided) nuts
  535. objective lens
    a device used to focus a projected image on a screen or other surface
  536. oblique drawing
    a scaled mechanical drawing with one face of the object, drawn as an elevation, placed at right angles to the observer's line of sight; the remaining faces project from the elevation to the right or left using a 30- or 45-degree base line
  537. Ohm's law
    the law that states: as voltage increases, current increases; as resistance increases, current decreases
  538. oil stone
    an abrasive composite stone, usually with different grits on opposite faces; used for sharpening knives, chisels, and other cutting tools
  539. omnidirectional
    in all directions; a spherical microphone pickup pattern
  540. open-end wrench
    a wrench with nonadjustable U-shaped jaws on both ends; the opening between the jaws is of a specific width to grip bolts and nuts of specific diameters; used to tighten bolts and nuts
  541. orchestra
    the circular area on which the majority of the action of the play took place in a Greek theatre
  542. orchestra pit
    the space between the stage and the auditorium, usually below stage level, that holds the orchestra
  543. orthographic projection
    a series of elevations, drawn to scale, that show each side or face of an object
  544. overlay
    a garment, usually made of lace or a similar lightweight, semitransparent fabric, designed to lie on top of another garment
  545. Oxford cloth
    a flat-surfaced cotton or cotton-blend material frequently used for making shirts
  546. oxidation
    a chemical reaction between metal and air that forms a thin, discolored "skin" over the work that effectively prevents heat transfer. It adversely affects the strength and conductivity of both soldered and welded jousts.
  547. pageant wagon
    a staging convention used during the medieval period. Basically, a bare platform backed with a plain curtain mounted on a wagon. The wagon could be pulled from town to town.
  548. paint chip
    a small rectangle of paper or thin cardboard painted in a specific hue
  549. paint crew
    persons responsible for painting the scenery and properties; they are under the supervision of the scenic artist
  550. painter's elevations
    elevations of a set painted to show the palette and painting styles to be used on the actual set
  551. pan
    to rotate an object about its vertical axis
  552. panel adhesive
    an adhesive product, such as Liquid nails, packaged in a caulking tube and intend to be dispensed with a caulking gun
  553. paper clad
    both sides covered in paper
  554. paperclay
    a non-toxic modeling material that can be sculpted, molded or shaped, and air dries to a hard finish that can be carved or sanded
  555. papier-mache
    a process of building up a form by laminating wheat-paste-soaked strips of newspaper; also available commercially in a powdered form to make a paste suitable for forming in molds
  556. parametric equalizer
    an equalizer in which individual frequencies or custom-designed bands of frequencies can be programmed for boost or attenuation
  557. paraskenia
    long, high walls that extended on either side of and parallel with the skene of the Greek theatre
  558. PAR can
    a holder for a parabolic aluminized reflector (PAR) lamp; creates a powerful punch of light with a soft edge; the PAR 64 is commonly used for concert lighting
  559. particle board
    a sheet stock composed of small wood chips and sawdust mixed with a glue binder and compressed into 4x8ft sheets; it is quite brittle, so it cannot be used as a load-bearing surface
  560. patch
    to connect a stage circuit to a dimmer circuit
  561. patch bay
    a cross-connect or patch panel for sound
  562. patch panel
    an interconnecting device that allows one to connect any stage circuit to any dimmer
  563. pattern maker
    person who makes patterns based on information contained in the costume designer's sketch, notes, and instructions
  564. PC
    the hardware, operating systems/software, and peripherals based on the IBM personal computer
  565. PDA--personal digital assistant
    a hand-held computer used for making/keeping notes, schedules, phone numbers, and similar functions
  566. perspective-view base line
    the bottom edge of a perspective drawing
  567. Phillips-head screwdriver
    screwdriver with a cross-shaped head for a cross-shaped slot
  568. photomontage
    a composite picture made by combining several separate pictures; can include nonphotographic images as well
  569. piano wire
    extremely strong wire made from spring steel; frequently used for flying scenery because of its strength; should not be sharply bent as this significantly reduces its strength
  570. picture frame stage
    a configuration in which the spectators watch the action of the play through a rectangular opening; synonym for proscenium arch stage
  571. picture hook and eye
    hooks and eyes that facilitate rapid hanging and removal of decorative draperies
  572. Piezoelectricity
    voltage produced when pressure is placed on certain crystals
  573. pig
    a loosely woven bag containing powdered eraser material
  574. pigment
    material that imparts color to a substance such as paint or dye
  575. pilot hole
    starter hole
  576. pinch bar
    a flattened metal bar configured like a crowbar
  577. pin rail
    a horizontal pipe or rail studded with belaying pins; the ropes of the rope-set system are wrapped around the belaying pins to hold the batten at a specific height
  578. pipe
    a counterweighted batten or fixed metal pipe that holds lighting instruments
  579. pipe clamp
    a threaded pipe with a movable end plate and an adjustable head plate; used for clamping furniture frames and similar wide objects; a bar clamp is similar, except that a notched bar is substituted for a pipe
  580. pipe cutter
    a tool used for making clean right-angle cuts through steel tubbing of half-inch and larger diameters
  581. pipe wrench
    similar in shape to the monkey wrench, it has jaws that are serrated to bite into the soft metal of pipes; used for holding or twisting pipes and their associated couplings
  582. pit
    • the ground in front of the stage where the lower-class audience stood to watch the play in Elizabethan theatres
    • in twentieth-century theatres, a commonly used abbreviation for orchestra pit
  583. pitch
    • the size of a particular typeface
    • the characteristic tone produced by a vibrating body; the higher the frequency of a vibration, the higher this is
  584. pixel
    a picture element; the smallest discrete part of an electronically projected picture, as on a computer monitor
  585. plan angle
    the ground-plan view of an object
  586. plane
    a knife-edged tool used to smooth or round the edges or corners of wood
  587. plano-convex lens
    a lens with one flat and one outward-curving face
  588. plaster line
    in drafting, a leader line extending across the opening of the proscenium arch
  589. plate
    a sheet of mechanical drawings, drawn to scale
  590. platea
    the open acting area in front the mansions of the medieval stage
  591. playback system
    devices used to play recorded sound; usually composed of some combination of a turntable, a tape deck, a CD player, or a computer; an equalizer; an amplifier; and a speaker
  592. playwright
    person who develops and writes the script
  593. plotter
    a printer used to produce computer generated drafting sheets and drawings on large paper
  594. plug
    a wooden insert used to replace a knothole or other imperfection in the surface layer of a sheet of plywood
  595. plush
    fabric similar to velveteen but with softer and longer pile; common drapery and upholstery fabric
  596. ply-metal
    refers to TEK screws specifically designed to attach plywood to metal. The flat head of the screw is typically driven flush with, or slightly into, the top surface of the plywood
  597. plywood
    a sheet stock made by laminating several layers of wood; its superior strength is created by alternating each successive layer so that its grain lies at a 90-degree angle to the layers immediately above and below it
  598. pneumatic nailer
    a compressed-air-powered tool similar in appearance to a pneumatic stapler but using clips of adhesive-coated nails rather than staples
  599. pneumatic stapler
    a compressed-air-powered stapler capable of driving staples with legs up to 1 1/2 inches long; adhesive coated staples are generally used for assembling flat frames, putting tops on platforms, and similar functions
  600. pointing and clicking
    using a mouse to initiate a specific action on a computer