Pharmacology Quiz II Review
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What are the 4 major groups of Antacids?
- Aluminum Hydroxide (can promote constipation)
- Magnesium Hydroxide (can induce diarrhea)
- Calcium Carbonate
- Sodium Bicarbonate
These H2 Receptor Antagonists are indicated for?
- Gastric / Duodenal Ulcers
- Hypersecretion of Acid
- Stress Ulcers
- Prevent Aspiration Pneumonitis
- *Cimetidine can inhibit hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, causing levels of many other drugs to rise: warfarine, phenytoin, theophyline, lidocaine
What are the therapeutic uses of these Proton-Pump Inhibitors?
- Superior to H2 receptor antagonists in healing of NSAID-induced peptic ulcers
- Combination therapy for the eradication of H. pylori infection
Colloidal Bismuth Compounds (Pepto-Bismol)
What types of drugs are these?
Mucosal Protective Agents
Metoclopramide (Reglan) is indicated for?
- (antiemetic properties)
Diphenoxylate with Atropine (Lomotil)
These drugs are indicated for?
Bisacodyl (Dulcolax) and Senna (Senokot) are indicated for?
- *overuse can cause Diarrhea
What types of drugs are Psyllium Seed (Metamucil) and Saline Solution (Milk of Magnesia)?
What type of drugs are Mineral Oil, Glycerin Suppositories, Docusate (Colase)?
What types of drugs are
Antiemetic Drugs (prevent nausea and vomiting)
What are the different types of Antibacterial Drugs?
- Bacterial Cell Wall Inhibitors: disrupts the cell wall structure to prevent proper cell division eventually leading to death
- DNA Inhibitors: prevents synthesis in anaerobic bacteria
- Antimetabolites: interfering with enzymes involved in DNA synthesis
- Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: stops or slows the growth or proliferation of cells by disrupting the processes that lead directly to the generation of new proteins at the ribosome level
These are the drug of choice for what conditions?
- Non resistant Staph & Strep
- Gas Gangrene
- Listeria infection
Amoxicillin (Amoxi) is the drug of choice for what conditions?
- Otitis Media
What is the drug of choice for animal bites and cat scratches?
What is the drug of choice for Pseudomonas?
These drugs are indicated for what conditions?
Skin / Soft tissue infections
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) is indicated for what conditions? Adverse effects?
- Atypical Bacteria: chlamydia, mycobacteria, legionella
- Infections of the: Lower Respiratory Tract, Bone, Joints
- Adverse effects: Growth plate arrest in children
Metronidazole (Flagyl) is used against what?
- *parasitic infections
What are Sulfadiazine and Sulfapyradine indicated for? Adverse affects?
- Uncomplicated UTI
- Prophylaxis against Rheumatic Fever
- Adverse effects: hypersensitivity (fever / rash) Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (serum sickness)
Trimethoprim / Sulfamethoxazole (TMP / SMZ, Cortimoxazole, Septra, Bactrim) are indicate for what conditions?
- Inexpensive, effective choice for: UTI, acute otitis media, traveler's diarrhea
- Used for Pneumocysitis carinii prophylaxis / treatment in immunocompromised hosts
What are the side effects of taking Gentamicin and Tobramycin?
What are Clarithromycin (Biaxin) and Azithromycin (Zithromax) indicated for?
- Sore throat due to infection
- *Azithromycin also for uncomplicated chlamydia infections
What is the drug for choice for Pseudomembranous Colitis?
Tetracycline (Achromycin) and Doxycycline (Vibramycin) are indicated for? Adverse effects?
- Chlamydial infection
- Lyme disease
- Adverse effects: GI distress, reversible nephotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, photosensitivity (easily sunburned), dental staining
Vaccomycin (Vancocin) is the drug of choice for?
- Antibiotic Associated Colitis (C. Difficile)
- PRSA (penicillin resistant staph aureus)
- MRSA (methicillin)
For these kinds of drugs, treatment consists of several kinds to prevent resistance from single type. Prophylactic treatment is recommended for asymptomatic patients that develop skin test positivity and for your (<4 years) or immunocompromised patients that are exposed to an infectious case of tuberculosis.
- Antituberculosis Drugs
- Isoniazid, Rifampin, Streptomycin, Ethanbutol
Acyclovir is indicated for?
Ganciclovir is indicated for?
Amantadine and Remantidine are indicated for?
Ribavirin is indicated for?
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Interferon alfa's are indicated for?
- Chronic Hepatitis C
- AIDS assoc Kaposi Sarcoma
- Hairy Cell Leukemia
- Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
- Malignant Melanoma
- Follicular non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
What are the categories of Anti-HIV drugs?
- Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI's)
- Noncucleoside Reverse Transriptase Inhibitors (NNRTI's)
- Protease Inhibitors
Terbinafine (Lamisil) is indicated for?
Toenail infection (fungal)
Anti cancer drugs are much more toxic to tissues with ___1__ growth fraction than to tissues with ___2__ growth fraction.
Solid tumors have a low growth fraction and therefore tend to respond ____1____ to chemotherapy. In contrast, disseminated cancers have a high growth fraction and generally respond ____2____ to chemotherapy.
These agents are generally more effective against slow-growing tumors than other classes of antineoplastics.
What are the indications for taking Methotrexate?
- Cancers: pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia, osteogenic sarcoma, Burkitts lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, head and neck sarcomas, choriocarcinoma
- Severe psoriasis (in low doses)
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
Unlike most other anticancer drugs, _________, exerts minimal toxicity to bone marrow (non-immunosuppressive). Nausea and vomiting are usually mild.
- *this is an excellent choice for combination therapy
This is the drug of choice for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
This is the drug of choice for advanced carcinoma of the prostate.
This drug is one of the most effective agents against solid tumors.
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