Peripheral Nervous System

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alb229
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227200
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Peripheral Nervous System
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2013-07-16 17:40:44
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BYU Anatomy
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BYU Anatomy- Peripheral Nervous System-Chapter 14
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  1. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    Portion of the nervous system consisting of nerves and ganglia that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.

    glossary 788
  2. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Brain and spinal cord

    glossary 782
  3. Afferent Neurons (Sensory Neurons)
    • -make up sensory division of PNS
    • -transmit impulses toward the CNS from sensory receptors in the PNS
    • -psuedounipolar
    • -in ganglia outside of CNS

    353
  4. Efferent Neurons (Alpha)
    -cause entire muscle (extrafusal fibers) to generate force and resist further stretching

    430
  5. Efferent Neurons (Gamma)
    -preset the sensitivity of the spindle to stretch

    430
  6. Cranial Nerves
    -the 12 peripheral nerves that attach directly to the brain

    (Names of the nerves are on another card)

    worksheet
  7. Know the names of all 12 cranial nerves
    Remember: "Oh, oh, oh, To Touch And Feel Very Good Velvet, AH!"

    • (look these up)
    • O
    • O
    • O
    • T
    • T
    • A
    • F
    • V
    • G
    • V
    • A
    • H

    worksheet
  8. Autonomic Nervous System
    • -part of the efferent (motor) division of the PNS
    • -motor innervation of smooth and cardiac muscle and glands

    worksheet
  9. Sympathetic versus Parasympathetic
    • sympathetic: fight or flight
    • parasympathetic: vegetative function (digestion and resting)

    worksheet
  10. papilla
       - on tongue - contain taste buds

    worksheet

    Chemical Senses - Gustation (taste)
  11. saliva
    -dissolves stimulating (in foods) which bind to the microvilli cell membrane

    worksheet

    Chemical Senses - Gustation (taste)
  12. Understand "innervation of taste receptors"
    •    - It happens through facial and glossopharyngeal nerves
    • (you'll probably need to look this one up in the book)

    worksheet

    Chemical Senses - Gustation (taste)
  13. olfactory epithelium
    •    - covers the superior nasal concha and superior part of the nasal septum.
    •         -Sniffing draws more air across the olfactory epithelium and intensifies the sense of smell.
    •         -psuedostratified columnar epithelium that contain millions of bipolar neurons 

    482

    Chemical Senses - Olfaction (smell)
  14. olfactory receptor cells
        - bipolar neurons; surrounded by columnar supporting cells

    482

    Chemical Senses - Olfaction (smell)
  15. olfactory cilia
        - act as the receptive structures for smell by binding odor molecules to receptor proteins located in the plasma membrane of the cilia.

    482

    Chemical Senses - Olfaction (smell)
  16. olfactory nerve/bulb
        -penetrates the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and enter the olfactory bulb of the forebrain.

    482

    Chemical Senses - Olfaction (smell)
  17. Tarsal Glands
    - sebaceous gland embedded in the tarsal plates; releases an oil that lubricates the surface of the eye.

    483

    Vision and the Eye
  18. Levator palpebrae superioris
    - lifter of the upper eyelid; skeletal muscles that voluntarily opens the eye.

    483

    Vision and the Eye
  19. Iris
    • - the visible, colored part of the eye
    • - lies between the cornea and lens

    488

    Vision and the Eye
  20. Rods
    • - is a photoreceptor cell; sensitive to light and permits vision in dim light.
    • - black and white only

    489

    Vision and the Eye
  21. Cones
    • - is a photoreceptor cell
    • -operate in bright light and enable high-acuity color vision
    • -sensitive to blue, red, and green light

    489

    Vision and the Eye
  22. Macula lutea
    - yellow spot; lies at the eye's posterior pole

    490

    Vision and the Eye
  23. Fovea Centralis
    - central pit of the macula lutea; contains cones and provides visual acuity; anterior-posterior axis of the eye

    490

    Vision and the Eye
  24. Lens
    - thick, transparent, biconvex disc that changes shape to allow focusing of light on the retina

    491

    Vision and the Eye
  25. Orbicularis occuli
    - thin, flat sphincter muscle of eyelid; surrounds rim of the orbit.

    275

    Vision and the Eye
  26. Development of the Eye
    • Optic Vesicles- paired lateral outgrowths protrude from the diencephalon--week 4
    • Optic Cups- hollow vesicles indent to form double-layered optic cups--week 4
    • Optic Stalks- proximal part of the outgrowths; form basis of the optic nerves
    • Lens Placode-

    496
  27. Optic Vesicles
    paired lateral outgrowths protrude from the diencephalon--week 4

    496

    Development of the Eye
  28. Optic Cups
    hollow vesicles indent to form double-layered optic cups--week 4

    496

    Development of the Eye
  29. Optic Stalks
    proximal part of the outgrowths; form basis of the optic nerves

    496

    Development of the Eye
  30. Lens Placode
    Thickened portion of the ectoderm which serves as the precursor to the lens--week 5

    496/worksheet

    Development of the Eye
  31. Lens Vesicle
    Pinches off into the optic cup, where it becomes the lens--week 5

    496

    Development of the Eye
  32. Myopia
    Nearsightedness, image focused in front of the retina-distant objects are blurry.

    worksheet

    Disorders
  33. Hyperopia
    Farsightedness, image focused behind retina-close objects appear blurry.

    worksheet

    Disorders
  34. Tympanic Membrane
    Forms the eardrum, between outer and inner ear.

    worksheet/497

    Ear, Hearing, and Equilibrium
  35. Semicircular Canals
    Provide information about orientation to the brain to help maintain balance.

    worksheet/503

    Ear, Hearing, and Equilibrium
  36. Cochlea
    Produces nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations

    worksheet/500

    Ear, Hearing, and Equilibrium
  37. Vestibule
    Chamber or channel communicating with or opening into another.

    worksheet/502

    Ear, Hearing, and Equilibrium
  38. Pharyngotympanic (Eustachian) Tube
    Links the middle ear to the pharynx.

    499

    Ear, Hearing, and Equilibrium
  39. How do sound waves travel through the inner ear and stimulate the hearing receptors?
    look in book
  40. Endolymph
    Internal water; clear fluid

    500

    Hearing
  41. Perilymph
    Surrounding water; clear fluid

    500

    Hearing
  42. Equilibrium
    • -measures the position and movement of the head to create balance
    • -occurs within the vestibule and the semicircular canals
    • -transmits through the vestibular nerve to the lower brain centers (not the cerebral cortex)

    worksheet
  43. Internal Structure of the Eye
    487
  44. Anatomy of the Cochlea
    501
  45. Accessory Structures of the Eye
    485
  46. Structure of the Ear
    498
  47. Roots
    443

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