Ch 1 Key Terms.txt

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squintz4u
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Ch 1 Key Terms.txt
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2013-07-16 02:17:04
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  1. ´╗┐cloud computing
    a computing model where not only the applications but also the data reside in the cloud (i.e., the Internet), to be accessed anytime from anywhere
  2. collaboration system
    software designed to enable people to communicate, collaborate, and coordinate with each other
  3. competitive advantage
    a firm's ability to do something better, faster, cheaper, or uniquely when compared with rival firms in the market
  4. computer-based information system
    a combination of hardware, software, and telecommunication networks that people build and use to collect, create, and distribute data
  5. computer ethics
    a broad range of issues and standards of conduct that have emerged through the use and proliferation of information systems
  6. computer fluency
    the ability to independently learn new technologies as they emerge and assess their impact on one's work and life
  7. computer literacy
    the knowledge of how to operate a computer
  8. data
    recorded, unformatted information, such as words and numbers, that often has no meaning in and of itself
  9. digital divide
    the gap between those individuals in our society who are computer literate and have access to information resources such as the Internet and those who do not
  10. downsizing
    the practice of slashing costs and streamlining operations by laying off employees
  11. globalization
    the integration of economies throughout the world, enabled by innovation and technological processes
  12. Globalization 1.0
    the stage of globalization driven primarily by power from horses, wind, and steam. European countries were globalizing; large --> medium world (1400-1800)
  13. Globalization 2.0
    stage of globalization driven by a reduction of transportation and telecommunication costs;American and European countries were globalizing; medium --> small world (1800-2000)
  14. Globalization 3.0
    stage of globalization driven by convergence of the 10 "flatteners." Individuals and small groups were globalizing; small --> tiny world (2000)
  15. Hardware
    physical computer equipment (computer monitor, central processing unit, keyboard)
  16. information
    data that has been formatted and/or organized in some way as to be useful to people
  17. information accessibility
    an ethical issue that focuses on defining what information a person or organization has the right to obtain about others and how this information can be accessed and used
  18. information accuracy
    an ethical issue concerned with the authenticity and fidelity of information as well as identifying who is responsible for informational errors that harm people
  19. information age
    a period of time in society when information became a valuable or dominant currency
  20. information privacy
    an ethical issue that is concerned with what information an individual should have to reveal to others through the course of employment or through other transactions such as online shopping
  21. information property
    an ethical issue that focuses on who owns information about individuals and how info can be transferred, sold, and exchanged
  22. IS
    hardware + software + telecommunications networks; people use it to collect, create, and distribute useful data; AKA the field in which people develop, use, manage, and study IS in organizations
  23. information technology (IT)
    machine technology that is controlled by information or uses information
  24. in-forming
    individuals' use of powerful search engines on the Internet to build their own personal supply chain of information, knowledge, and entertainment
  25. in-sourcing
    transferring a previously outsourced function to an in-house department
  26. Internetworking
    connecting host computers and their networks to form even larger networks
  27. Knowledge
    a body of guidelines or rules that are used to organize or manipulate data to make it suitable for a given task
  28. Knowledge society
    term coined by Peter Drucker to refer to a society in which education is the cornerstone of society and there is an increase in importance of knowledge workers
  29. Knowledge worker
    Term coined by Peter Drucker to refer to professionals who are relatively well educated and who create, modify, and/or synthesize knowledge as a fundamental part of their jobs
  30. Luddite
    Person feeling threatened by and protesting against or destroying technology
  31. Management information system (MIS)
    1) a field of study that encompasses the development, use, management, and study of IS in organizations
  32. 2) an IS designed to support the management or organizational functions at the managerial level of the organization
  33. nearshoring
    the reversal of offshoring; the use of locations closer to the home country in terms of geographical, political, linguistic, economic, or cultural distance
  34. Neo-Luddite
    Person who opposes information systems, fearing negative impacts such as social decay, increased consumerism, or loss of privacy
  35. Office automation system (OAS)
    a collection of software and hardware for developing documents, scheduling resources, and communicating
  36. Offshore outsourcing
    outsourcing of business processes on a global scale
  37. offshoring
    having certain business functions performed by the same company but in a different country
  38. one laptop per child (OLPC)
    an initiative to distribute very low-cost laptop computers to children in developing countries around the world
  39. Outsourcing
    the moving of routine jobs and/or tasks to people in another firm to reduce costs
  40. service mentality
    the belief among is personnel that their chief goal is satisfying their systems customers within the firm while fundamentally believing that the customers, not the systems personnel, own the technology and the information
  41. software
    a program or set of programs that tell the computer to perform certain processing functions
  42. strategic
    a way of thinking in which plans are made to accomplish specific goals
  43. systems integration
    connecting separate IS and data to improve business processes and decision making
  44. telecommunications network
    a group of two or more computer systems linked together with communications equipment
  45. transaction processing system (TPS)
    An IS designed to process day-to-day business-event data at the operational level of the organization
  46. uploading
    the ability of individuals and companies to actively participate in content generation on the web
  47. Wiki
    web site allowing people to post, edit, comment, and access info; prior versions of the site available
  48. work flow software
    software applications that allow people worldwide to communicate

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