NASM Chapter 2 test prep

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mgmammi
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NASM Chapter 2 test prep
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2013-07-16 18:02:48
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nasm basic exercise science cpt
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Exam preparation chapter 2 NASM essential pf personal fitness training
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  1. Define proprioception pg18
    the culmulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement
  2. Define mechanoreceptors pg21
    sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues.
  3. Muscle spindles pg21
    Receptors sensitive to chande in length of muscle and the rate of that change
  4. Golgi tendon organs
    Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change
  5. muscular system pg36
    Series of muscles that moves the skeleton
  6. muscles
    movers and stabilizers of the body
  7. epimysium pg37
    • A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle.
    • (actual muscle wrapped by outer layer of connective tissues called>fascia>and inner layer immediately surrounding the muscle>epimysium)
  8. Perimysium pg37
    • The connective tissue that surrounds fascicles.
    • (fascicle is surrounded by connective tissues called perimysium)
  9. Endomysium pg37
    • The deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers.
    • (each fascicle is made up of many individual muscle fibers that are wrapped by connective tissue called endomysium)
  10. ACH released to binding receptors,fig 2.38 pg 40
    Nerve Impluses arrives at the axon
    terminal of the motor neuron which triggers the release of ACh and
    synaptic vesicle filled with ACh
    • Steps in the initiation of a contraction:
    • Step 1
  11. Action reaches T tubule.

    ACh diffuses across the synatic cleft:
    binds to its receptor in the motor end plate of the neuromuscluar: Na
    ions are released causing an electrical charge to initiate a muscle
    action potential in sacolema of the muscle fiber
    Step 2 in the initiation of contraction
  12. Sarcoplasmatic reticulum releases CA2+.

    Acetylcholine sterase in synaptic cleft
    destroys in synaptic cleft destroys (ACH) so another muscle action
    potential does not arise unless more ACH is released from motor neuron.
    Muscel action potential travels along the sarcolemma and into muscle
    fiber.
    Step 3 initiation of contraction
  13. Active site exposure cross-bridge binding.

    T-tubule opens calcium release channels
    in the sarcoplasmic reticulum(SR) memebrane which allows calcium ions
    to flood into the SR
    Step 4 initiation of contraction
  14. contraction begins.

    Calcium ions bind to troponin and
    troponin changes shape moving tropomyosin on the actin to expose active
    molecules on thin filaments
    Step 5 initiation contraction
  15. ACH(acetylcholine) removed by ACHE(acetylcholine esterase)

    Contraction: power strokes use ATP;
    myosin heads binds to actin, thin filaments are pulled forward center of
    sarcomere(attach, pivot, detach , return)
    • Steps that end the contraction:
    • Step 1
  16. sarcoplasmic reticulum recaptures CA2t.

    Calcium release channels in SR close
    and calcium active transport pumps use ATP to restore low levels of
    calcium ions in Sacroplasm
    • Steps that end the contraction:
    • Step 2
  17. active site covered, so there is no cross bridge interaction between actin and myosin.

    Troponin-tropomyosin comlex slides back into position where it blocks the myosin-binding sites on action
    • Steps that end the contraction:
    • Step 3
  18. contraction ends,
    • Steps that end the contraction:
    • Step 4
  19. relaxation occurs passive return to resting length
    • Steps that end the contraction:
    • Step 5
  20. Muscle fiber Type 1
    • (Slow-twitch)contain large number of:
    • capillares, mitochondria(which transform energy from food into ATP, or cellular energy), and myoglobin, which allows for improved delivery of oxygen.
  21. muscle fiber Type 1
    • -more capillares, mitochondria, and myoglobin
    • -increased oxygen delivery
    • -smaller in size
    • -less force produced
    • -slow to fatigue
    • -long term contractions
    • -slow ttwitch
  22. Muscle fiber Type 2
    (fast-twitch)are often referred to as white fibers.Type IIx muscle fibers have low oxidative capacity and fatigue quickly. Type IIa muscle e capacity and fatigue more slowly than type IIx.have a higher oxidatiuve capacity and fatigue more slowly than type IIx.
  23. muscle fiber type 2
    • -Fewer capillare. mitochondria, and myoglobin
    • -decreased oxygen delivery
    • -larger in size
    • -more force produced
    • -quick to fatigue
    • -short term contractions (force and power)
    • -fast twitch
  24. Agonist ch2 pg 42
    muscles that act as a prime mover, or, in other words, they are muscles most responsible for a particular movement
  25. Synergist ch2 pg 42
    assists prime movers during movement
  26. Stabilizer ch2 pg 42
    support or stabilize the body, whereas the prime movers and the synergist perform movement patterns.
  27. Antagonist ch2 pg 42
    muscle perform the opposite action of the prime mover
  28. which muscle is the agonist on a chest press?
    Pectoralis major
  29. which muscle is the agonist on a overhead press?
    Deltoid
  30. which muscle is the agonist on a row?
    latissimus dorsi
  31. which muscle is the agonist on a squat?
    gluteus maximus, quadriceps
  32. which muscle is the synergist on a chest press?
    anterior deltoid, triceps
  33. which muscle is the synergist on a overhead press?
    triceps
  34. which muscle is the synergist on a row?
    posterior deltoid, biceps
  35. which muscle is the synergist on a squat?
    hamstring complex
  36. which muscle is the stabilizer on a chest press?
    rotator cuff
  37. which muscle is the stabilizer on a overhead press?
    latissimus dorsi
  38. which muscle is the stabilizer on a row?
    pectoralis major
  39. which muscle is the stabilizer on a squat?
    psoas

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