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Cartilage consists of
chondrocytes embedded within an extracellular matrix (ECM).
Cartilage is classified into
The specific properties of cartilage is derived from
the makeup of their matrix
True or false:
Cartilage has a rich pool of blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves
What is the most common type of cartilage?
where is the hyaline cartilage located at?
at synovial joint surfaces, the nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and costal cartilages.
Hyaline cartilage - the chondrocytes resides within...
Hyaline cartilage - Lacunae are located within
a basophillic extracellular matrix
hyaline cartilage - isogenous group
the type of arrangement in cluster of chondrocytes
they are formed by one or more divisions of an original progenitor chondrocytes
The ECM of hyaline cartilage includes
the territorial matrix, immediately adjacent to the lacunae
the interterritorial matrix- the rest of the ECM not immediately adjacent to lacunae.
Hyaline cartilage matrix - Territorial matrix
contains a high proportion of proteoglycans and is poor in collagen content; this enrichment of proteoglycans increases the basophilia of the matrix just adjacent to the lacunae.
Hyaline Cartilage Matrix- interterritorial matrix
higher proportion of Type II collagen and lower amounts of proteoglycan
- Proteoglycans are organized as aggrecans-
- glycosaminoglycan molecules covalently bound to a central protein core.
- The interterritorial matrix is rich in aggrecan
- molecules that are then linked non- covalently to hyaluronic acid.
- The high negative charge of these aggrecan
- complexes results in a net influx of water (~80% by weight of the cartilage) molecules into the matrix.
Proteoglycan complexes are interspersed among collagen fibers, which are oriented to best resist stress on the cartilage.
Perichondrium - location
Adjacent to the chondrocytes and their matrix is a region of dense irregular connective tissue
Perichondrium - resident cells
fibroblasts and chondroblasts
perichondrium - chondroblast
elongatedcells located between the chondrocyte layer and the fibroblast layer
•Chondroblasts are a stem population that will produce chondrocytes during growth and maintenance of the cartilage.
True or false
Perichondrium is vascular and innervated
true or false
perichondium is found at articular surfaces
Growth of the cartilage
- 2 ways:
- appositional growth
- interstitial growth
Growth of cartilage - appositional growth
- From the incorporation of chondroblasts into
- the cartilage at the interface with perichondrium
growth of cartilage - interstitial growth
- From the division of chondrocytes within
- the cartilage itself- this forms the clustering structure of the isogenous groups
no perichondrium is ever found in
bone plate or joint capsule end (aka articular surface)
Elastic Cartilage is found in
pinna of the ear, auditory tube, epiglottis, and cuneiform cartilages of the larynx.
Elastic vs hyaline cartilage
elastic fibers are present in both the matrix and the outer fibrous layer of the perichondrium.
Elastic cartilage - the matric
- less abundant, and elastic fiber bundles
- are larger in the territorial vs interterritorial
Elastic cartilage contain type ... cartilage
Elastic fibers stain ... in many histological preparations of cartilage.
Fibrocartilage - location
- the intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis,
- articular discs, and attached to bones.
True or false
perichondrium play an important role in growth of fibrocartilage
Fribrocartilage - matrix
contain large bundle of type I collagen course bw parallel rows of chondrocytes
fibers are acidophillic
How is fibrocartilage's collagen bundle arranged?
in direction of tensile forces
e.g: vertically in the annulus fibrosus of the intervetebral discs
Fibrocartilage vs tendon
both contain Type I collagen, but the morphology of the chondrocyte cell body is round, not flattened
Role of cartilage - hyaline cartilage
high water contain resist compression force
Role of cartilage - elastic fiber
role of cartilage - fibrocartilage
resist tensile force due to presence of type II cartilage bundles and less matrix moves fibrocartilage closer to bone in its structure
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