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Have a single chromosome
- Regions in bacteria that contains DNA
- Does not have a membrane
- Small loops of DNA that exist separate from central loop of DNA
- Can be freely exchanged with other bacterial cells vis cytoplasmic bridges during conjugation
- Plasmids replicate at their own rate, and can share DNA with cells while keeping the trait themselves (bacteria resistant)
Genetic recombination in bacteria
exchange DNA via free floating plasmids, and exchanging plasmids
Bacteria pick up free floating DNA
Occurs between bacterial cells with cytoplasmic extensions that allows plasmids to move between cells
- Viruses infect certain bacteria viruses
- DNA gets incorporated into bacteria, replicates and lyses the cell, infecting new bacteria.
- How bacteria turn DNA off and on
- RNA polymerase attaches to promotor sequence
- RNA polymerase reads RNA to DNA as it goes alone
- A repressor protein can bind to operator, and stop RNA polymerase from reaching genes it needs to transcribe
- Repressor protein can be triggered to fall off in presence of absence of a chemical.
several related genes, an operator and a promotor
Operon example: Lac operon
- Responsible for breakdown of lactose in E.coli.
- If RNA poly attaches to the promotor, genes needed to breakdown lactose are made
- Repressor protein has a receptor for lactose
- If excess lactose needs to be broken down it binds to repressor protein and protein falls off
- i.e. Lac operon turns on when lactose is present and off when it is not present
- Repressor protein attaches to the operator sequence only when a certain compound is present in the environment singling the absence of the target molecule
- Repressible usually involved with the synthesis of a substance
- Enzymes that can be induced or turned on by the presence of a certain substance.
- Inducible proteins are usually involved with the breakdown of a substance.
- Ex: lactose, when in the environment lac operon turns on to break it down