Blood

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alb229
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227309
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Blood
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2013-07-23 18:17:09
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BYU Anatomy Blood
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BYU Anatomy-Blood-Chapter 17
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  1. Blood Functions
    • -distribution of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste, and hormones
    • -regulation of body temperatures
    • -protection from blood loss and foreign invaders

    worksheet
  2. Whole Blood
    • -components of blood together
    • -blood flowing through veins such as:
    •     -plasma with platelets and proteins, leukocytes and erythrocytes

    worksheet
  3. Plasma
    • -straw-colored, sticky fluid
    • -90% water
    • -100 different kinds of molecules..Na and CI
    • -nutrients such as:
    • -simple sugars
    • -amino acids
    • -lipids
    • -makes up 55% whole blood
    • -Proteins: albumin, fibrin, globulin

    worksheet/513
  4. Buffy Coat (leukocytes= white blood cells; platelets)
    • -fraction of a blood sample
    • -makes up 1% of the total blood volume
    • -contains most of the white blood cells and platelets

    worksheet/513
  5. Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
    • -red blood cell is a biconcave disc without a nucleus
    • -contains hemoglobin--turns the blood red
    • -97% hemoglobin
    • -transports oxygen and carbon dioxide

    worksheet/515
  6. Hematocrit
    • -ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood
    • -45% of blood volume

    worksheet/513
  7. Hematopoiesis
    -occurs in red bone marrow

    worksheet
  8. Hemocytoblasts (blood stem cells)
    • These elements are derived from hemocytoblasts:
    •    -erthrocytes
    •    -leukocytes
    •    -platelets

    workseet
  9. Erthropliesis
    Genesis of Erthrocytes

    worksheet
  10. Erythrocyte Destruction
    • -cell can't grow, divide, synthesize protein
    • -becomes "old" in 100 days
    • -spleen traps and fragments degenerating   erythrocytes
    • -iron is salvaged
    • -cell is digested by macrophages

    worksheet
  11. Leukocytes (white blood cells)
    • -complete cells
    • -provide defense against disease
    • -types:
    •     -granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
    •     -agranulocytes: lymphocytes, monocytes

    worksheet
  12. Platelets
    • -not cells
    • -they are cytoplasmic fragments
    • -contain chemical needed for clotting

    worksheet
  13. Hemophilia
    • -sex-linked disorder that occurs in males
    • -VIII deficiency

    worksheet
  14. Erytrocyte Disorders
    Anemia: insufficient number of RBC's, decrease in hemoglobin

    worksheet

    Blood Disorders
  15. Sickle-cell Disease
    • -also known as sickle cell anemia
    • -hereditary form of anemia
    •      -hemoglobin distorts red blood cells into a crescent shape at low oxygen levels
    • -most common among African Americans

    worksheet/523

    Blood Disorders
  16. Polycynthemia
    • -many blood cells
    • -abnormal excess of erythrocytes in the blood
    • -causes blockage in small vessels

    523

    Blood Disorders
  17. Leukocytosis
    An excess of leukocytes, indication of infection or inflammation

    worksheet

    Leukocyte Disorders
  18. Leukemia
    Cancer of the blood

    worksheet

    Blood Disorders
  19. Infectious Mononucleosis
    • -caused by the Epstein-Barr virus
    • -production of excessive number of agranulocytes

    523

    Leukocyte Disorders
  20. The Heart
    • -size of a fist
    • -divided into 4 chambers
    •         -2 atria and 2 ventricles
    • -weighs 300 grams (< a pound)
    • -enclosed in the mediastinum
    • -base is the posterior-superior portion of the heart
    • -apex of the heart is directed inferiorly toward left hip

    worksheet
  21. Myocardium
    Middle layer composed of cardiac muscle

    worksheet

    Layers of the Heart
  22. Endocardium
    Inner thin white sheet of endothelium

    worksheet

    Layers of the Heart
  23. Epicardium
    Outer layer of the heart

    worksheet

    Layers of the Heart
  24. Atria
    • -receiving chambers
    • -pectinate muscles
    • -foramen ovale (in fetus)
    • -separated by interatrial septum

    worksheet
  25. Ventricles
    • -the discharging chambers
    • -make up most of heart mass
    • -separated by the inter-ventricular septum

    worksheet
  26. Trabeculae Carnae
    irregular ridges of muscle

    532 (bottom of page)
  27. Papillary Muscles
    • -cone shaped
    • -project from walls into the ventricular cavity

    532 (bottom of page)
  28. Chordae Tendineae
    • -thin, strong bands
    • -cord like tendons that connect papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve and mitral valve in the heart

    worksheet
  29. Veins
    • -inferior vena cava
    • -superior vena cava
    • -coronary sinus
    • -pulmonary veins

    worksheet

    Great Vessels of the Heart
  30. Arteries
    • -pulmonary arteries
    • -aorta

    worksheet

    Great Vessels of the Heart
  31. Tricuspid (right ventricular valve)
    Separates atrium and ventricle on the right side

    worksheet

    valves
  32. Pulmonary Semilunar
    Separates right ventricle and left pulmonary artery.

    worksheet

    valves
  33. Bicuspid (mitral or left atrioventricular valve)
    Separates atrium and ventricle on the left side.

    worksheet

    valves
  34. Aortic Semilunar
    Separates left ventricle and aorta.

    worksheet

    valves
  35. How do the different valves prevent backflow?
    Description on page 537
  36. Which valves are open/closed when the atria contract?  What about when the ventricles contract?
    Description on page 537
  37. The ___ valve is under the most strain, and therefore is most often involved in valve disorders.
    Mitral and Aortic Valve

    540
  38. What sets the rate of the heartbeat (pacemaker)?
    SA (sinoatrial) node

    worksheet
  39. What do cardiac muscles do?
    Generate or conduct an impulse or contract

    worksheet
  40. Why do heart chambers contract?
    In response to the impulse conduction path

    worksheet
  41. Damage to the ____ node slows down ventricular contraction, requiring an artificial pacemaker.
    Sinoatrial Node (SA)

    543
  42. Murmurs
    Sound that can be heard when there are disorders in the valves.  

    The sound of the backflow of blood.

    worksheet
  43. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
    Arteries that supply the heart wall are narrowed or blocked.

    545
  44. Myocardial Infarction
    If a coronary artery is blocked, the cardiac muscle cells die due to not enough oxygen; heart attack

    545
  45. Angina Pectoris
    Disease; Thoracic pain caused by inadequate oxygen of heart muscle cells that weaken, but do not die.

    545
  46. Arteries of the upper limb and thorax
    568
  47. Branches of abdominal aorta
    570
  48. Anatomy of the heart
    535
  49. figure I can't find
    worksheet
  50. Structure of Capillaries
    560(b)
  51. How many layers are arteries and veins composed of?
    3 layers (tunics)

    worksheet

    structure of the walls
  52. Tunica Intima
    • -contact with lumen
    • -composed of simple squamous epithelium

    worksheet

    structure of the walls
  53. Tunica Media
    Smooth muscle associate with vasoconstriction

    worksheet

    structure of walls
  54. Tunica Externa
    Composed of collagen fibers

    worksheet

    structures of the walls
  55. What do arteries do?
    Transport blood away from the heart

    worksheet

    arterial system
  56. Elastic Arteries
    Thick walled, near heart, contain an abundance of the protein elastin.

    worksheet

    arterial system
  57. Muscular Arteries
    • -also known as distributing arteries
    • -have thickest media
  58. Arterioles
    Tunica media consists of only one or two layers of smooth muscles.

    worksheet

    arterial system
  59. Capillaries
    • -consist of tunica intima only
    • -continuous, fenestrated, sinusoidal capillaries

    worksheet
  60. Varicose Veins
    • -veins become dilated due to incompetent valves (blood pools)
    • -factors:
    •    -heredity
    •    -obesity
    •    -pregnancy

    worksheet
  61. Atherosclerosis
    • -aorta and coronary arteries are most effective by this disease
    • -leads to atherosclerosis:
    •    -damage to intima (chemicals, virus, stress)
    •    -injured tissue releases growth factors
    •    -sequesters and oxidizes LDLs
    •    -attracts monocytes to the area
    •    -monocytes migrate beneath intima
    •    -monocytes become macrophages which become foam cells
    •    -other molecules congregate and create plaques

    worksheet
  62. Lymphatic System
    • -transports fluids that have escaped from the blood vascular system back to blood
    • -it is the body's defense and causes resistance to disease
    • -one way system

    worksheet
  63. Why are lymph vessels not found in the central nervous system?
    chapter 20
  64. Vessels
    • -lymph capillaries
    • -lacteals
    • -lymphatic collecting vessels
    • -lymphatic trunks
    • -empties into venous circulation

    worksheet
  65. Lymph Nodes
    • -lymph filtration
    • -activate immune response
    • -structure:
    •   -capsule
    •   -trabeculae
    •   -cortex
    •   -medulla

    worksheet
  66. Spleen
    • -largest lymphoid organ
    • -immune response
    • -blood cleaner
    • -erythrocyte producer (fetus)
    • -erythrocyte graveyard red pulp (rbc) and white pulp (wbc)

    worksheet

    lymph organs
  67. Thymus
    • -infants and children require greater activity of this gland than adults
    • -produces hormones
    • -activates T-lymphocytes
    • -thymic lobules
    • -cortex and medulla
    • -atrophies with age

    worksheet
  68. Tonsils
    Exterior surface is covered by squamous epithelium

    worksheet
  69. Elephantiasis
    • -wuchereria bancrofiti is the parasitic culprit
    • -edema is the consequence
    • -inguinal lymph nodes are sites of blockage
    • -treated with antibiotics
  70. Major Veins of Systemic Circulation
    576
  71. Lymph Nodes and Lymph Trunks
    597
  72. Fetal and Newborn Circulation
    589
  73. Duodenum of small intestine
    666

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