Quarter 4 Structure Exam 1

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bradley.knox
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227332
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Quarter 4 Structure Exam 1
Updated:
2013-07-23 21:09:59
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Abdomen Inguinal Canal Stomach Intestines
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  1. What region of the abdomen is located superior to the lumbar region?
    Hypochondriac region
  2. What plane separates the hypochondriac and lumbar regions of the abdomen? What spinal level is the plane located in?
    Subcostal plane (L2)
  3. What line separates the iliac and hypogastric regionis of the abdomen?
    mid-clavicular line
  4. What line separates the umbilical and hypogastric region of the abdomen?
    Intertubercular (L5)
  5. A patient presents with pain in the epigastric region. What organ is likely involved?
    Stomach
  6. A patient presents with pain from the gallbladder or liver. What region of the abdomen would the patient point to?
    Hypochondrium
  7. A patient presents with pain in the umbilical region. What organ is likely involved?
    Small intestines
  8. what region of the abdomen would have pain if the appendix was the involved organ?
    Right Iliac Fossa
  9. Pain in the suprapubic region would indicate involvement of what organ?
    bladder
  10. What organ is likely involved when a paint has pain from the loin to groin region?
    Ureter
  11. What are the six layers of the anterior abdominal wall from superficial to deep?
    • Skin- Stratified Squamous, Largest organ of the body, protective
    • Superficial Fascia- Campers (fatty) Scarpa (mebranous)
    • Muscle- Skeletal
    • Transversalis Fascia- connective
    • Extraperitoneal Fat- loose connective
    • Parietal Peritoneum- connective
  12. what nerve innervates the area of the xiphoid process?
    7th intercostal n.
  13. Describe the flow of blood from the heart to the internal iliac a. ?
    Ascending aorta --> Arch of aorta--> Descending aorta --> Thoracic Aorta--> through thoracic diaphram--> Abdominal aorta--> celiac trunk, sup. messenteric, Inf. mesenteric (3 arteries off abdominal aorta)--> (L/R) iliac arteries--> External and internal iliac a. (Inferior epigastric, deep circumflex) branch off external iliac a.
  14. What artery supplies the diaphragm and what is its parent artery?
    • musculophrenic artery
    • Internal thoracic
  15. What are the contents of the rectus sheath?
    • Rectus abdominis
    • Sup. and Inf. epigastric vessels
    • 7th to 11th intercostal and subcostal nerves
  16. What type of cells make up the tunica intima (innermost layer of blood vessel) and what is the function?
    • Simple Squamous 
    •     - diffusion
    •     - Filtration
  17. What layer of a blood vessel is made up of smooth muscle and elastin?
    Tunica Media
  18. What region of the abdomen is located superior to the lumbar region?
    Hypochondriac region
  19. What plane separates the hypochondriac and lumbar regions of the abdomen? What spinal level is the plane located in?
    Subcostal plane (L2)
  20. What line separates the iliac and hypogastric regionis of the abdomen?
    mid-clavicular line
  21. What line separates the umbilical and hypogastric region of the abdomen?
    Intertubercular (L5)
  22. A patient presents with pain in the epigastric region. What organ is likely involved?
    Stomach
  23. A patient presents with pain from the gallbladder or liver. What region of the abdomen would the patient point to?
    Hypochondrium
  24. A patient presents with pain in the umbilical region. What organ is likely involved?
    Small intestines
  25. what region of the abdomen would have pain if the appendix was the involved organ?
    Right Iliac Fossa
  26. Pain in the suprapubic region would indicate involvement of what organ?
    bladder
  27. What organ is likely involved when a paint has pain from the loin to groin region?
    Ureter
  28. What are the six layers of the anterior abdominal wall from superficial to deep?
    • Skin- Stratified Squamous, Largest organ of the body, protective
    • Superficial Fascia- Campers (fatty) Scarpa (mebranous)
    • Muscle- Skeletal
    • Transversalis Fascia- connective
    • Extraperitoneal Fat- loose connective
    • Parietal Peritoneum- connective
  29. what nerve innervates the area of the xiphoid process?
    7th intercostal n.
  30. Describe the flow of blood from the heart to the internal iliac a. ?
    Ascending aorta --> Arch of aorta--> Descending aorta --> Thoracic Aorta--> through thoracic diaphram--> Abdominal aorta--> celiac trunk, sup. messenteric, Inf. mesenteric (3 arteries off abdominal aorta)--> (L/R) iliac arteries--> External and internal iliac a. (Inferior epigastric, deep circumflex) branch off external iliac a.
  31. What artery supplies the diaphragm and what is its parent artery?
    • musculophrenic artery
    • Internal thoracic
  32. What are the contents of the rectus sheath?
    • Rectus abdominis
    • Sup. and Inf. epigastric vessels
    • 7th to 11th intercostal and subcostal nerves
  33. What type of cells make up the tunica intima (innermost layer of blood vessel) and what is the function?
    • Simple Squamous   
    •    - diffusion
    •    - Filtration
  34. What layer of a blood vessel is made up of smooth muscle and elastin?
    Tunica Media
  35. Where is scarpa (deep membranous layer found)?
    Below the umbilicus
  36. What are the three attachments of the scarpa?
    • inferiorly to fascia of the thigh
    • Inferior edge of ischiopubic rami

    posterior edge of urogenital diaphragm
  37. What is the appendix?
    intra-abdominal outpouching of the caecum
  38. What structures make up the anterior wall of the inguinal canal?
    • Internal oblique MUSCLE (laterally)
    • External oblique APONEUROSIS (medially)
  39. What structures make up the posterior wall of the inguinal canal?
    • Transversalis Fascia (Laterally)
    • Conjoint tendon (medially)
  40. What structures make up the roof of the inguinal canal?
    • Internal oblique
    • Transversus abdominus
  41. What structures make up the floor of the inguinal canal?
    • inguinal ligament laterally
    • Lacunar ligament medially
  42. What are the contents of the inguinal canal?
    • Spermatic cord (males)
    • Round ligament of uterus (females)
    • Ilio-inguinal nerve (both)
  43. What are the three coverings of the spermatic cord from superficial to deep and what is their origin?
    • External spermatic fascia (from EOB)
    • Cremasteric muscle and fascia (from IOB)
    • Internal spermatic fascia (from Transveralis fascia)
  44. What type of tissue makes up the appendix?
    lymphoid tissue lined w/ columnar epithelium
  45. What is the most common position of the appendix?
    • retrocaecal (65%)
    • pelvic (30%)
  46. What nerve supplies the appendix?
    lesser splanchnic (T10-T11)
  47. What are the three arteries of the spermatic cord?
    Testicular artery (Abd. Aorta parent)Artery to ductus deferenscremasteric artery
  48. What are the three nerves of the spermatic cord?
    • Testicular n. (symp T10)
    • Genital Br. of genitofemoral n. (L1,2)
    • Ilioinguinal n. (L1)
  49. Testicular n. (symp T10)Genital Br. of genitofemoral n. (L1,2)Ilioinguinal n. (L1)
    Indirect inguinal hernia
  50. Describe a direct inguinal hernia?
    passes through inguinal triangle (medial to inferior epigastric vessels)and superficial inguinal ring
  51. What is the most common hernia in males and females respectively?
    • Males: Indirect
    • Females: Femoral
  52. What is the location of deep inguinal ring?
    .5 in superior to midpoint between ASIS and Pubic Symphysis
  53. What is the attachment of the medial crus and lateral crus respectively?
    • Medial crus: pubic symphysis
    • Lateral crus: pubic tubercle
  54. Name the arteries that supply the stomach (name, parent, part of stomach)?
    • Left Gastric, Celiac Trunk, Body/lesser curvature
    • Right gastric, Common hepatic, Body/lesser curvature
    • Left gastro-omental, Splenic, greater curvature
    • Right gastro-omental, gastroduodenal, greater curvature

    Short gastric, splenic, fundus
  55. What is the parasympathetic innervation of the stomach?
    anterior and posterior vagal nerves
  56. What is the sympathetic innervation of the stomach?
    Branches of greater splanchnic though celiac ganglia
  57. Where does lymph from the superior two-thirds of the stomach drain?
    R/L gastric vessels to gastric nodes
  58. Where does lymph from the fundus drain?
    along short gastric and left gastro-omental arteries to the pancreaticosplenic nodes
  59. Where does lymph drain from the right two thirds of the inferior third of the stomach?
    R gastro-omental artery to the pyloric nodes
  60. Where do all the nodes eventually drain?
    celiac nodes  (some liver via porta hepatis)
  61. What part of the duodenum is the only part not in the retroperitoneal and where is it?
    • 1st or superior part
    • Intraperitoneal
  62. How long is the first part of the duodenum and at what spinal level is it located?
    • 5cm
    • L1
  63. Name three structures that lie posterior to the duodenum?
    • Portal vein
    • common bile duct
    • gastroduodenal artery
  64. What is the length and spinal level of the 2nd/descending part of the duodenum?
    • 7.5 cm
    • L2
  65. Name three salient features of descending duodenum?
    • Contains greater and less er duodenal papillae
    • Head of pancreas lies medially
    • Hilum of kidney posterior
  66. How long and at what spinal level is the horizontal portion of the duodenum?
    • 10cm
    • L3
  67. What stucture is closely related to the horizontal (3rd) portion of the duodenum?
    Uncinate process of pancreas
  68. What is the length and level of the ascending part of the duodenum?
    What is the length and level of the ascending part of the duodenum?
  69. What fixes the duodeno-jejunal junction?
    fibromuscular suspensory ligament AKA ligament of Treitz
  70. What are the attachments of the ligament of Treitz?
    • duodeno-jejunal junction
    • right cruz of thoracic diaphram
  71. What is the blood supply of the duodenum?
    Superior pancreaticoduodenal (from gastroduodenal, from common hepatic, from celiac trunk){foregut}

    Inferior pancreaticoduodenal (from superior messenteric artery) {midgut}
  72. What part of the colon is supplied by the superior mesenteric artery?
    • Ascending 
    • proximal 2/3 of transverse colon
  73. What artery supples the distal 1/3 of the transverse colon, descending, sigmoid colon, and rectum?
    inferior mesenteric artery--> left colic-->

    Ascending b.--> marginal artery--> distal 1/3 of transverse colon

    Descending b.-->marginal artery--> descending colon

    IMA-->Sigmoid arteries--> straight arteries--> sigmoid colon

    IMA--> superior rectal arteries
  74. What is the lymphatic drainage of the colon?
    • Pre-colic nodes
    • Colic nodes
    • superior/inferior mesenteric nodes
    • portal nodes
    • liver
  75. what is the innervation of the ascending and transverse colon?
    • sympathetic 
    • lower thoracic SN--> superior mesenteric plexus

    • Parasympathetic 
    • superior mesenteric plexus via vagus
  76. What is the sympathetic and parasympathetic supply of the descending and sigmoid colon?
    • Sympathetic 
    • upper lumbar S.N.--> sup. hypogastric plexus--> inf. mesenteric plexus

    • Parasympathetic
    • S1, S2, S3--> pelvic splanchnic n.
  77. Length of jejunum? length of ileum?
    • Jejunum: 8ft
    • Ileum: 12ft
  78. Opaque window, jejunum or Ileum?
    ileum
  79. Thick wall, jejunum or ileum?
    jejunum
  80. short narrow arcades?
    Ileum
  81. more mesenteric fat, jejunum or ileum?
    Ileum
  82. Plentiful plica circulares? jejunum or ileum?
    jejunum
  83. what is the blood supply of the appendix?
    appendicular artery<--ileocolic artery<-- SMA
  84. Postition of the appendix?
    • retrocecal: 65%
    • Pelvic: 30%
    • Pre/retro-ileal 5%
  85. what part of the colon is 6in in length?
    ascending
  86. How long are the transverse and sigmoid colon?
    • 18in
    • 18in
  87. How long is the descending colon?
    12in
  88. How long is the rectum?
    5
  89. What is the blood supply of the small intestines?
    • superior mesenteric arteries
    • -jejunal branches
    • -ileal branches
    • -ileocolic artery
  90. What branch of the SMA supplies the proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon?
    Middle colic br.
  91. What branch of the IMA supples the ascending colon?
    • right colic br
    • ileo-colic br.
  92. what is the blood supply of the cecum?
    ant and post cecal arteries via ileocolic a.
  93. what is the appendicular artery a branch of?
    ileocolic artery

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