Theories - Personality

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Theories - Personality
2013-07-22 20:10:25

Testing on the different theorists/creators
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  1. Two creators of TRAIT APPROACH
    • Big 5 (OCEAN)
    • Eyesenck (E/N/P)
  2. Two creators of HUMANISTIC APPROACH
    • Maslow (hierarchy of needs)
    • Rogers (loving therapy)
    • Freud (psychosexual)
    • Erickson (psychosocial)
  4. 3 names of approaches
    • Trait
    • Humanistic
    • Psychodynamic
  5. DSM - IV definition of psychological disorder (6)
    • enduring pattern
    • deviates from expectation of persons culture
    • pervasive and inflexible 
    • adolescence or early adulthood
    • leads to distress/impairment
    • (heavily influenced by trait theory)
  6. DSM personality disorders (AADHNOPSS)
    • Antisocial
    • Avoidant
    • Dependent
    • Histrionic
    • Narcissistic
    • Obsessive
    • Paranoid
    • Schizoid
    • Schizotypical
  7. Personality interventions (2)
    • Cognitive behaviour therapy
    • Assertiveness training
  8. Steps of assertiveness training (8)
    • Information gathering
    • identify problem areas of assertiveness
    • role plays
    • 'I' statements
    • Feedback provided
    • Practice role playing techniques in real life
    • Goal is to self monitor use of assertiveness techniques on ongoing basis
    • minimal risks
  9. 4 main social issues in personality
    • Anger and aggression
    • personality and crime
    • Personal growth
    • Positive Psychology
  10. Social psych: anger and aggression
    • anger is sub-trait of aggression
    • associated with physical disease
    • angry individuals tend to think differently about world than others
    • anger management is main treatment
  11. Social Psych: Personality and crime (2)
    • little evidence suggests criminal personality exists
    • 10-15% of criminals meet criteria of DSM-IV personality disorder
  12. Social Psych: traits that indicate criminality (4)
    • lack of self control
    • Impulsivity
    • lack of guilt/remorse
    • Inability to take perspective of others
  13. Social Psych: Personal growth - Humanistic (4)
    • most related to personal growth
    • three core attitudes:
    • empathy
    • acceptance
    • genuiness
  14. Social Psych: Personal growth - Psychodynamic (2)
    • health and happiness depends on maintenance of successful personal relationships
    • problems caused by failure in relationships as child
  15. Social Psych: positive psyhcology (3)
    • psychology used to focus on negative and problematic behaviour
    • pos. psych. is concerned with positive developments in behaviour
    • likely to be applied in future to various fields of
    • psych
  16. Methods of investigation for personality (4)
    • Self-report tests (projective)
    • self-report tests (personality tests)
    • Behaviour observations
    • Interviews
  17. Method of investigation: Self report test (projective) (5 and definitions)
    • Rorschach inkblot test (ink)
    • Thematic apperception test (sad pics)
    • Word association tests (must say a word you associate with one told)
    • Completion tests (complete a sentence)
    • Bender visual motor gestalt test (reproduce 9 geometric shapes from memory)
  18. Method of investigation: Self report test (personality) (3 and definitions)
    • Criterion-group personality tests
    • Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI - discriminates between normal and abnormal with 556 questions)
    • Californian Psychological inventory (CPI - emphasises positive normal aspects of personality on normal individuals)
  19. Method of investigation: Behaviour observation steps (3)
    • Identify critical behaviour
    • Determine if behaviour is excess or deficit 
    • measure frequency and intensity of behaviour
  20. Method of investigation: Interviews (6)
    • gathers info on client
    • client describes onset of their problems
    • patterns/themes discussed
    • other sources of info used (fam and friends)
    • good interviewer must be warm and genuine 
    • open ended questions better
  21. Psychodynamic (Erickson and Freud) assumes that personality is: (2)
    healthy person does what?
    • determined by hidden unconscious forces
    • primarily affected by the environment in the first 5 years of life

    balances conflicts between conscious and unconscious forced
  22. Humanistic (Maslow and Rogers) assumes that personality is: (2)

    healthy person is what?
    • influenced by unique potential within all of us
    • needs a good environment to nuture inner potential through life

    fully functioning and self-actualised
  23. Trait (Big 5 and Eysenck) emphasises what about personality? (2)
    • genetic component that influences brain function and personality
    • Personality traits are enduring psychological characteristic that influence behaviour
  24. Define personality trait
    an enduring psychological characteristic or disposition that influences behaviour 
  25. Theory that uses conscious, preconscious and subconscious
  26. Why is psychodynamic approach unscientific?
    • No testable hypothesis
    • depend heavily on clinical case studies
  27. What is Carl Rogers concept of congruence?

    what encourages congruence?
    if a person's self-concept is reasonably accurate, it is congruent with reality

    unconditional love from parents
  28. criticisms of humanistic approach?
    • poor testability
    • inadequate evidence
    • unrealistic view of human nature
  29. What beliefs are at centre of trait theory? (2)
    • we behave the same way across all situations
    • there is consistancy across time (child-adult)
  30. Advantages of personality tests? (5)
    • Can be used in clinical diagnosis
    • validity and reliability are available 
    • can be used for career guidance
    • can be used for staff selection
    • allows comparisons between individuals with same measurement
  31. Disadvantages of using personality tests? (4)
    • deception by participants
    • social desirability bias in participants' responses
    • response sets (all yes or no) used by participants
    • validity and reliability have been questioned
  32. Ethical issues of personality tests (4)
    • using unknown reliability and validity - inaccurate info given
    • who the scores are given to (employer)
    • based on white, middle-class men's behaviour ( discrimination)
    • offensive/destructive
  33. What is narcissistic personality disorder
    believing that you're better than others
  34. what is avoidant personality disorder?
    extremely shy and hypersensivity to rejection/criticism