philosophy 11 critical 7

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justjay18xx
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philosophy 11 critical 7
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2013-07-17 01:15:39
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philosophy 11 critical 7
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  1. Conditional argument – any argument containing one or more conditional sentences, either as premises or as the conclusion or as both.
    Example - If I lie in the sun too long, then I get a sunburnI lie in the sun too longTherefore, I get a sunburnThe conditional sentence here is, “If I lie in the sun too long, then I get a sunburn.” That is because it is a compound sentence where the truth of one of the clauses, the consequent – “I get a sunburn” – is conditional upon, or depends upon, the truth of the other, the antecedent – “I lie in the sun too long.”
  2. compound sentence
    One that contains (at least) one other complete sentence as one of its parts.

    Example –“If today is Wednesday, then the test is tomorrow.” This particular conditional sentence has two other complete sentences as its parts: “Today is Wednesday,” and, “The test is tomorrow.” In it those two, smaller sentences –“Today is Wednesday” and “The test is tomorrow” – are compounded, or joined together, using the words “If…then.”
  3. A simple sentence is one that does not have another sentence as one of its parts.
    Example – “Today is Wednesday,” or, “The test is tomorrow.” Neither one of these sentences has another complete sentence as a part of it

    All sentences are either simple or compound!!Lots of other words can be used to form compound sentences out of simple ones besides “if/then,” for instance, “and,” “or,” “not,” and “if and only if.”“Today is Wednesday and the test is tomorrow;” “today is Wednesday or the test is tomorrow;” “it is not the case that today is Wednesday and the test is tomorrow;” “today is Wednesday if and only if the test is tomorrow.”
  4. Affirming the antecedent – an argument where one premise is a conditional sentence, the other affirms the antecedent of the conditional – says, “Yes, the antecedent did occur” – and the conclusion is the consequent of the conditional.
    Example – 

    • P1    If I drop it, then it will break 
    • P2    I dropped it  
    • C      Therefore, it’s broken

    • If p, then q
    • p
    • q

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