Clinical Science

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Clinical Science
2013-07-17 02:06:02
immune system

Session 1
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  1. Classification of disease........
    • 1. Congenital and hereditary (gene mutations)
    • 2. Inflammatory (microbial agents, hayfever)
    • 3. Degenerative (Parkinson, Alzheimer)
    • 4. Metabolic (thyroid problems)
    • 5. Neoplastic (cancerous)
  2. 1. What is the first line of defence in immunity?
    skin & mucous mebranes
  3. What is the second line of defence in immunity?
    • Antimicrobial proteins (interferons, complement, transferrins).
    • Macrophages, NK cells, neutrophils
    • Non specific cellular responses
    • Fever
    • Inflammation
  4. What is the 3rd line of defence in Immunity?
    • T CELLS - cell mediated immunity
    • B CELLS - humoral or antibody mediated
  5. Antibody isotypes - IgG
    • Primary and secondary response more specific and stronger.
    • most common antibody in the blood.
    • antibacterial, antiviral, antitoxin.
    • Capable of crossing placenta
  6. Antibody isotype -IgM
    • First response to foreign antigens.
    • activates complement system
  7. Antibody isotype - IgD
    • monomers (single unit)
    • Found on surface of B cells, usually co-expressed igM
    • signals when young B Cells in spleen are ready to be activated
  8. Antibody isotype - IgA
    Defence of mucous membrane
  9. Antibody isotype - IgE
    • Binds to mast cells in skin and mucous membranes.
    • When Linked to an allergen results in hypersensitivity reaction.
    • Causes release of histamine and other chemicals.
    • Results in inflammation.
  10. Immunological Memory
    • After primary response a number of activated T & B cells join a memory pool of cells.
    • These T & B cells can be reactivated on a subsequent exposure to the same antigen.
    • This allows for a more rapid response to the antigen as the T & B cells can under go clonal expansion upon exposure to the antigen and do not have to go through activation process.
    • This makes the response faster and more effective.
  11. how is Immunological memory measured?
    Measured through antibody titre (amount of antibodies in the serum)
  12. Primary response in immunological Memory?
    slow rise first in the levels of Ig M and then Ig G after a period of several days after the initial contact with an antigen followed by gradual decline.
  13. Secondary response in Immunological memory?
    • The accelerated, more intense response of the memory cells to subsequent encounters with the antigen , consisting mainly of IgG antibodies
    • Provides basis for vaccination against certain diseases
  14. Naturally acquired passive immunity
    Transfer of IgG antibodies from mother to feutus across placenta, or of IgA antibodies from mother to baby in milk during breast feeding.
  15. Naturally acquired active immunity
    Following exposure to a microbe, antigen recognition by B cells & T cells and costimulation lead to antibody secreting plasma cells, cytotoxic T cells, & B & T memory cells.
  16. Artificially acquired active immunity
    • Antigens introduced during a vaccination stimulate cell mediated and antibody mediated immune responses, leading to production of memory cells.
    • The antigens are pretreated as to be immunogenic but not pathogenic.
  17. Artificially acquired passive immunity
    Intravenous injection of immunoglobulins (antibodies).
  18. What is the disease process?
    • Resolution - Regression, normal return of tissue.
    • Repair
    • Adaption - Cells adapt to new environment
    • Death
  19. What is the difference between a disorder and  a disease?
    • Disorder
    • A disruption of or an interruption with normal functions or established systems.

    • Disease
    • A condition of abnormal vital function involving any structure, part, organ, or system of the body. A specific illness or disorder characterised by a recognisable set of signs and symptoms attributable to heredity, infection, diet or environment.
  20. What is Aetiology?
    Cause, The study of all factors that may be involved in the development of a disease.

    idiopathic - cause unknown

    iatrogenic - cause as result from medical intervention or procedure
  21. Difference between endogenous & exogenous?
    Endogenous - internal source

    Exogenous - external source
  22. Apoptosis
    Programmed cell death without inflammation
  23. Atrophy
    decrease in cell tissue, or organ size or function
  24. Dysplasia
    Disorganisation of tissue or change in cell size or shape.
  25. Dyspnea
    Breathless, laboured breathing
  26. Granuloma
    A small nodular delimited aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells, or a collection of modified macrophages resembling epithelial cells, usually surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes.
  27. Metaplasia
    Change of one mature tissue type into another e.g Barretts oesophagus
  28. Oedema
    Accumulation of fluid in the interstitial tissue spaces
  29. syncope
    A temporary suspension of consciousness, faint or swoon
  30. Tachycardia
    Rapid heart rate. Generally over 100 beats per minute in an adult.