Pharmacology Test #1
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Joint Review Commision on Education in Radiologic Technology
What organization does JRCERT adopt the Pharmacology curriculum from?
Outlines the practice of Medical Imaging in clinical, quality and professional performance. Defines practice and establishes general criteria to determine compliance.
Standard of Care
Is the failure to do something that a resonable pereson would do in a certain situation.
The breach of duty to adhere to a standard of care.
Is anything that is a hindrance, or puts individuals at a disadvantage.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
List the steps in the nursing process and what actions are performed in each step.
- Assessment - Collecting data (objective and subjective)
- Diagnosis - Conclusion of the patient's condition
- Planning - Written out steps
- Implementation - Puts plan into action
- Evaluation - What happens after implementation
What is Subjective data?
Information you get from the patient, Cannot be observed, measured, or varified. This information is subject to change.
What is Objective data?
Measurable, cold hard facts. Vital Signs.
What are the 6 Rights of Drug Administration?
- 1. The right drug
- 2. The right time
- 3. The right dose
- 4. The right patient
- 5. The right route
- 6. The right documentation
How can you increase your patient's understanding of information you may give them?
Use a combination of ways of teaching. Example: Audiovisual
Set by ASRT and adopted by JRCERT. Met by all imaging professionals practicing.
Defines the Scope of Practice.
Individuals with low literacy levels tend to have lower health.
The ability to understand information regarding health.
The study of drugs in living systems.
What the body does to the drug.
What the drug does to the body.
The use of drugs and treatment of disease.
Most common, same in all countries, first letter is lowercase.
"Band name," specific to drug manufacturer, first letter uppercase.
Name made of chemicals that comprise the drug, long name.
Name given by FDA, same as generic.
True of False: Contrast Media does NOT need a prescription.
Drug administered until discontinued
1 time order given immidiately.
1 time order given at specific time.
As needed basis.
Given within one hour of order.
What is a Kardex?
A flip-file card system. Used for easy reference. Thrown away when patient is discharged.
True or False: A Kardex is a legal document?
A useful pharmacology reference.
Physicians Desk Reference (PDR)
List the information required in a medication order or prescription.
- 1. Patient name and address
- 2. Drug Name
- 3. Dosage
- 4. Route
- 5. Date order was written
- 6. Prescribers signature
What federal organization serves to keep medications safe for use?
What are the 3 main druge categories recognized by the federal government?
Controlled substances, prescription, OTC
What types of drugs can bypass a portion of the approbal process of the FDA?
Cancer and AIDS
What are scheduled drugs?
Medications that have high potential for abuse.
List the schedules and give an example of a drug within that schedule.
- C-I - Crack Cocaine
- C-II - Oxycodone
- C-III - Aspirin
- C-IV - Chloral Hydrate
- C-V - Cough Syrup
What are some concerns with OTC drugs?
They can produce sideffects or interact with prescription drugs.
What is the name of the act that protects workers from needle sticks?
Needle Stick and Precention Act
What is the name of the federal agency that requires hospital to document and record needle stick injuries?
Methods for achieving effective drug administration. Dtudy of physical and chemical proerties of drugs and their proper dosage as related to the onset, duration and intensity of drug action.
Medications given enteral...
Anything given via the GI tract.
Medications given parenteral...
Anything given into the skin or via injection.
Medications given percutaneous...
Medications absorbed through the skin.
Disintegration of a drug.
Breaking up of a solid tablet or capsule
Dissolution of a drug.
Dissolving of a solid into a solution.
What are the 4 steps of Pharmacokinetics?
- 1. Absorption - the way the drug enters the body.
- 2. Distribution - the way the drug moves through the body.
- 3. Metabolism -
- 4. Excretion - process by which inactive chemicals are removed from the body.
Name 2 factors that affect the disribution process.
Blood flow and cardiac output
The drug being completely broken down until chemically inactive.
First time drug passes through the liver.
What is the main organ of metabolism?
Name 2 major routes of drug excretion.
GI tract, Urinary System, Exhaling
How ling it takes for the body to metabolize and excrete a drug to half of original intensity.
One drug changes the action of another drug.
Two drugs are given together and the action is equal to most active drug.
One drug interfers with another.
One drug replaces the other.
Two drugs mixed together, that once mixed cannot be administered.
One manufactor makes drug, after a while someone else wants to make the drug.
Drugs are identical with actice ingredients.
Medicine that does not fall within the realm of conventional medicine. Replaces traditional medicine or treatments.
Using both traditional and alternative treatments together.
Pro/Cons for herbal supplements
Pros: inexpensive, readilly available, may produce desired outcome.
Cons: Not regualted by FDA, dosage difference, may not produce desired outcome.
List two specific considerations in giving medications to a pediatric patient.
- 1. Slow metabolism.
- 2. Very ill children are at a greater risk of adverse reactions.
List two specific considerations in giving medications to a geriatric patient.
- 1. Absorption is delayed.
- 2. Slow metabolism.
List two specific considerations in giving medications to a pregnant/breastfeeding patient.
- 1. Whatever they take in can effect the fetus or newborn.
- 2. Teratogenic drugs can casue malformations or damage to an embryo or fetus.
List two specific considerations when providing care to populations of different cultures.
- 1. Must take religions into account when treating patient.
- 2. ???
What is the most common rule used to calculate medication dosage for children?
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