Linear Expansion:the increase in length by most solids when heated.
mnemonic: "a Lot"
Volume Expansion: the increase in volume of fluids when heated.
Conduction: the direct transfer of energy via molecular collisions
Convection: the transfer of heat by the physical motion of the heated material (only liquids and gases)
Radiation: the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
mnemonic: looks like MCAT
Can only be used to find Q when the object does no change phase
Q>0 means heat is gained
Q<0 means heat is lost
Heat of Transformation:
Heat of Transformation: the quantity of heat required to change the phase of 1kg of a substance.
Q = mL
(phase changes are isothermal processes)
*When the piston expands, work is done by the system (W>0)
*When the piston compresses the gas, work is done on the system (W<0).
*The area under a P vs V curve is the amount of work done in a system.
First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics: in any thermodynamic process that moves from one state of equilibrium to another, the entropy of the system and environment together will either increase or remain unchanged.