406 Lecture 1
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406 Lecture 1
First lecture in cellular biology 406
What is a cell?
-Basic units of life
How many cells are in a body?
What do cells provide?
Structure and energy
What is a cells function?
Cells carry out specialized processes needed for organ function.
What do cells carry?
DNA, genetic material
What is responsible for cellular replication?
What are cells composed of?
membrane enclosed organelles
What is the purpose of the plasma membrane?
Serves as a clear boundary between the cell's internal and external environments.
What is unicellular?
The cell itself is an organism, existing as a single entity that reproduces to make more copies of itself.
Where do cells live?
many different environments including within other organisms.
What does a flagella do?
senses environment and moves cell
Why is a cell membrane necessary?
protection from environmental stress
compartmentalization of functions
What are membrane protein functions?
connectors (to other cells)
Communication (relay signals)
What is the cell membrane made of?
What is the lipid bilayer made of?
What are the two parts of a phospholipid in a bilayer?
Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail
What do transport proteins do?
allow for selective passage of specific molecules from the external environment
Each transport protein is specific to a certain molecule.
What does the genome do?
codes for all cellular structures
What is information transfer?
Express information stored in genetic code
harness energy to build more complex components
What is required for a cell?
plasma membrane, genome, information transfer, and energy utilization
How many classes of nucleic acid are there?
What is nucleic acid?
molecules that contain and help express a cell's genetic code.
What are the functions of proteins in a cell?
catalytic and structural
What are carbohydrates used for in a cell?
cell's energy demand, intracellular energy stores, and cell recognition
What are lipids used for in a cell?
energy storage and other functions
What is 70% of a cell?
How are organelles separated?
partitioned off from the rest of the cell's interior by their own intracellular membrane
What do organelles do?
contain highly technical equipment required for specific jobs within the cell.
How are cells classified?
Packaging of genetic material.
How is prokaryotic genetic material packaged?
Not separated from the cytoplasm.
What are prokaryotes?
bacteria and archea
How is eukaryotic DNA packaged?
in membrane bound nucleus (organelle).
What is a protist?
A single celled eukaryote.
How are bacteria divided?
Gram negative and gram positive
What is gram negative?
Red- thin peptidoglycan wall does not retain violet dye
What is gram positive?
Thick peptidoglycan wall retains violet dye.
Why does gram negative not react?
It has a second membrane surrounding the cell wall.
What is the largest compartment of a eukaryote?
What is used to transport molecules between nucleus and cytoplasm?
How are organelles enclosed?
Lipid bilayer similar to plasma membrane.
What creates ATP?
What does lipid bilayer of organelles do?
separates organelle from cytosol
What organelles are present in eukaryotic cells?
What is cytosol?
Aqueous environment of the cytoplasm.
What is the cytosol's major function?
Synthesize proteins for its own use and for the import into the organelles.
What is the ER?
series of folded membrane sheets contiguous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope.
What does ER do?
Required for folding of proteins and assembling multi-subunit oligomers.
What can cause misfolded proteins in the ER?
extracellular signals or genetics.
What does ER stress cause?
UPR- Unfolded Protein Response- cell protective and cell death response.
Why is ER stress response important for human health?
Prevents accumulation of misfolded proteins which can cause disease.
What does the golgi apparatus do?
Involved in packaging molecules for export from the cell.
What makes up the secretory pathway?
Golgi apparatus and the trans-Goldi network.
What is the golgi apparatus?
A series of "stacks" of flat disks each surrounded by membrane.
What happens to a secretory vesicle once it leaves the trans-Golgi compartment?
It fuses with the plasma membrane.