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2013-07-22 12:36:59

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  1. What 4 fields use osteology?
    • Bioarcaeology
    • Primate anatomy
    • Paleoanthropology
    • Forensic Anthropology
  2. What are the functions of bone? (4)
    • Protect and support soft tissue
    • Blood cell production
    • Fat storage
    • Mineral reservoirs (especially calcium)
  3. Bones - Explain biomechanics
    • lever systems
    • movement by muscles
  4. Name the three types of joints
    • Synovial
    • Cartilaginous
    • Fibrous
  5. Ball and socket, hinge, and saddle shaped are all examples of which type of joint?
  6. What type of joint is found between growth centers?
  7. What type of joints can be found I cranial structures?
  8. What is Wolff's Law of Bone Remodeling?
    Bone is laid down where needed and resorbed where not needed
  9. What are osteoblasts?
    cells that form bones
  10. What are osteoclasts?
    Cells that destroy bones
  11. What part of the long bone is the epiphyses?
  12. What part of a long bone is the diaphysis?
    the shaft
  13. What part of the long bone is the metaphysis?
    flared ends of the shaft
  14. Name the 3 parts of a long bone
    • Epiphyses
    • Diaphysis
    • Metaphysis
  15. Limbs, hands, feet are all examples of what bone shape?
  16. Cranium, shoulders, pelvis and rib cage are all examples of what bone shape?
  17. Ankle, wrist, spine are all examples of what bone shape?
  18. What two parts make up the outer surface of the bone?
    • Periosteum
    • Blood supply
  19. Name the bone type:
    walls of bone shafts
    external bone surface
  20. Name the bone type:

    Porous, light-weight
    Vertebral bodies
    Ends of long bones
    Inside flat bores
    Red narrow
  21. What protein makes up 90% of the bone structure?
  22. What is the mineral component that gives bones strength?
  23. What organic compound that is made of protein gives bones their flexibility?
  24. What characterizes mature bones?
    • Thin, organized layers
    • Replaces immature bone
  25. Name 4 times when bones repair
    • Hematoma
    • Fibrous cellulous
    • Osteoblasts respond to injury
    • Immature bones mature
  26. Give 2 examples of degenerative changes in bones
    • Osteoporosis  (bone porosity)
    • Decreased estrogen levels
  27. Give two examples of growth disturbances
    • Ham's lines
    • Dental hypoplasia
  28. Give an example of a joint disease that is affected by age, sex, size, hormones, stress and genetics and is characterized by limping spur formation on the bone and eburnation.
  29. What type of trauma happens when bone flexibility fails
    Bone fracture
  30. Healing time depends on
    • alignment
    • further movement
    • health, age, diet, blood supply
  31. Name: "set of bones encircling the brain and making up the skull, exclusive of the jaw
  32. Name: "opening on the bottom of the skull through which the spinal cord passes"
    foramen magnum
  33. Name: "one quarter of the full complement of teeth, counted from the centerline of the mouth back towards the throat"
    dental formula
  34. Name: "bony protection for the spinal cord consisting of vertebrae"
    vertebral column
  35. Name: "two sets of three bones each that are fused to the sacrum and make up the pelvic girdle"
    ox coxae
  36. Name: "a major component of blood, functioning primarily to transport oxygen"
    red blood cells (erythrocytes)
  37. Name: "a major component of blood, functioning primarily as part of the immune system"
    white blood cells (leukocytes)
  38. Name 3 types of Idiosyncratic (individual) skeletal variations
    • dental variation
    • cranial variation
    • postcranial variation
  39. Idiosyncratic variation is the same thing as saying _______ variation
  40. What is Trephination?
    -cutting/scraping/chilling holes into the cranium
  41. Osteomyelitis
    • Pus producing bacteria
    • Cloacae
  42. Tuberculosis
    • bacterial disease
    • chronic illness
  43. Syphilis
    • spirochete bacteria
    • lesions, gummas
  44. Dental cones (cavities)
    • build up of bacteria and plaque
    • pulpitis, abscess
  45. Periodontal disease
    • build up of bacteria and plaque
    • bone resporption
  46. Anemia
    • sieve like lesions
    • parotic hyperostosis
    • cerebra orbitalia
  47. Rickets
    Vitamin D deficiency
  48. Name two simple ways to measure traits in humans
    • Blood type
    • Genetic information
  49. Name 4 complex ways to measure traits in humans
    • Anthropometrics (measurements of the human body)
    • Skin color
    • Odontometrics
    • Dermatoglyphics
  50. What is the biological concept of race?
    • Division within a species,
    • must differ by .25Fst (or 25%)
  51. Human DNA is betweend 0.__ -0.__ Fst
    0.03-0.17 Fst
  52. What are the two most varied races?
    Mongolian and ethiopians
  53. Give two examples of "the nature of continual variations"
    height and skin color
  54. Race is not a biologically constructed notion, but rather a _____ constructed notion that arises from our history, demography, and sociopolitical circumstances
  55. Name: "the main pigment in human skin, occurring in two forms: black and brown"
  56. Name: " cells that produce melanin"
  57. What is "cormic index"?
    standing height divided by sitting height
  58. What is intermembral index?
    ratio of arm length to leg legnth
  59. Name: "part of the human immune system that helps signal the presence of foreign substances in the body"
    Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) System
  60. Name: " statistical measurement of the fraction of variation found between samples"
  61. Name: "a situation in which selection favors a heterozygotic state for a given locus and thus maintains both the recessive and the dominant alleles in a population, even if one or both are deleterious in the homozygous state"
    balanced polymorphism
  62. Name: " a population or group of populations within a species that has measurable, defining biological characteristics and a Fst of at least 0.25 relative to other populations in the species"
    Scientific concept of race
  63. Name: " a population that meets the criteria defined within the scientific concept of race"
  64. Name: " Set of cultural or ethnic factors combined with easily perceived morphological traits (such as skin reflectance, body shape, cranial structure) in an artificial "biologized" category"
    Socially constructed concept of race
  65. Name: " the measuring and study of cranial morphology"
  66. Name: " a distribution wherein biological traits vary in a specific pattern across geography"
  67. Give an example of a clinal trait
    skin relfectance
  68. Name: "study of genetics with the notion of improving human biology and biological potential; often associated with erroneous and/or simplistic assumptions about the relationship of behavior or cultural traits with simple genetic systems"
  69. Name 3 main types of adaptation
    • Cultural
    • Genetic
    • Physiological
  70. Name 3 physiological adaptations
    • acclimation
    • acclimatization
    • developmental acclimatization
  71. what is acclimation
    short term changes
  72. what is acclimatization
    long term changes
  73. What is developmental acclimatization?
    changes during growth
  74. What is homeostasis?
    the bodys ability to maintain equilibrium
  75. what is cephalic index
    cranial size and shape
  76. what is nasal index
    nasal size and shape
  77. Humans vary more than most similar-sized mammals in size and body shape but less in ____ patterns
  78. Human variation in skin color is due to differential density of _____ in the epidermal layers.
  79. More ____ production leads to darker skin
  80. Allen's and Bergmann's rules demonstrate the mammalian-wide patterns of what
    heat/cold stress on body form
  81. Human males and females have about a __%-__% difference in body size as well as specific morphological differences in skeletal and muscle morphology
  82. Nearly __% of cranial variation is found within populations and only about __% is found between populations
    80%     and 20%
  83. ____ may end up playing an important role in future human evolution
  84. Blood group allele frequencies vary across human populations due to both ____ _____ and ____ _____
    • natural selection
    • gene flow
  85. The overall genetic Fst for our species is approximately 0.__, well below the level for subspecies distinction
  86. Comparing differences in socially constructed race categories cannot involve biological comparisons or causes only ______ ones
  87. Name 3 specific aspects of US history that contributed to the use of racial categories
    • colonial expansion
    • Linnaean classification
    • eugenics movement
  88. What is a pathogen?
    a disease producing agent
  89. Name: "Created by the United Nations combining economic, life expectancy, education and standard of living variables" abbreviation: HDI
    Human development index
  90. Name: "when humans alter sequences of DNA via technological means in order to repair or alter the function of the given sequence of DNA"
    gene therapy
  91. What are the five main approaches to the study of human behavioral evolution?
    • sociobiology
    • human behavioral ecology
    • evolutionary psychology
    • dual-inheritance theory
    • biocultural anthropology
  92. Human technological genomic modification may have the effect of (accelerating/decelerating) allele frequency change in some human populations
  93. Biological anthropology and the themes of the scientific method, collaborative investigation, and critical thinking are core to understanding _____
  94. What kind of body shape/size do cold climate populations have?
    shorter limbs and long torsos
  95. What kind of body shape/size do hot climate populations have?
    short torsos and long legs
  96. Rounded, square heads lose heat slowly and therefore are at an advantage for people in ____ climates
  97. Narrow heads lose heat more quickly and are therefore an advantage for people in ____ climates
  98. Populations in ___ climates tend to have narrow noses
  99. Populations in ___ climates tend to have wide noses
  100. Brain size is closely correlated with _____
  101. There is a __-__% difference in cranial capacities in males and females
  102. Give some examples of different types of stresses
    • Heat
    • Cold
    • Hypoxia (altitude stress)
    • Ultraviolet radiation
    • Nutritional stress
  103. Name an adaptation of people who live in higher altitudes
    greater chest dimensions, larger lung volume to adapt to the lessened oxygen
  104. Name a few examples of cultural adaptations
    • Wearing a jacket
    • Use of technology
    • Use of medicine
  105. Anthropometrics is what?
    How growth is measured
  106. Type of growth that is achieved by laying down new layers
    ex - bones
    Appositional Growth
  107. Type of growth that occurs when cell proliferate from many centers
    ex- muscle tissue
    Interstitial Growth
  108. Growth is the increase in _____
  109. Development is the increase in _____ _____
    Tissue diversity
  110. Name the seven stages of growth
    • Gestation
    • Infancy
    • childhood
    • juvenile
    • adolescence
    • adulthood
    • old age
  111. What do velocity curves show?
    change over time
  112. The ______ hormones control testosterone and estrogen
  113. Artificial deformation of the cranium was a form of
    head flattening or head binding
  114. ____ ______ is the ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment
    Phenotypic plasticity
  115. What are our basic nutritional needs?
    • carbohydrates, proteins, fats.
    • they are used for body maintenance, growth and energy
  116. The kind of diet of foragers ate is known these days as the "_____ diet"
  117. Adaptation to ultraviolet light is part of the evolution of what?
    Dark skin
  118. Name the 4 steps to the evolutionary approach to variation
    • 1. Production
    • 2.Redistribution
    • 3. Maintenance
    • 4. Phylogenic reconstruction
  119. Name a few benefits of agriculture
    • more, larger edible parts
    • easier to harvest
    • tastes better
    • more energy per acre
    • predictable food supply
  120. Name a few costs of agriculture
    • increase in disease
    • decrease in quality of diet
  121. Vasoconstriction is
    the narrowing of blood vessels
  122. Vasodilation is the
    widening of blood vessels
  123. Name: " the flow of blood to the extremities after exposure to cold"
    ex- shivering
    Lew hunting phenomenon
  124. ____ _____ _____ defines the stages of gestation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and seeks to explain the differences in the timing of development, fertility, and death of living organisms.
    Life history theory
  125. increase in sedentism, Population growth, plant and animal domestication are all characteristics of the transition to ______
  126. What are two biological impacts of agriculture?
    • population growth
    • disease
  127. Population growth occurs when...?
    more people are being born than are dying
  128. What are 3 factors of population growth?
    • Migration
    • Decrease in mortality
    • Increase in fertility
  129. What was the average life expectancy for foragers?
    20-40 years
  130. In agricultural societies, infant survival rate increases because they can start _____ earlier because they have a more stable food supply
  131. What is the difference between epidemic and endemic disease patterns?
    epidemic is over a short amount of time, and affects a large amount of people and then starts to die off

    endemic is over a long period of time and is always in a population but does not cause a giant spike in infection
  132. What are two common diseases found in forging societies
    parasites and zoonoses
  133. give a few characteristics and an example of parasites
    ex - lice, pen worms

    do not kill you, or if they do they do after a very long period of time
  134. give an an example of zoonoses
    west nile virus, tetnus

    kills relatively quickly
  135. Non infectious diseases (cancer, cartiovascular disease) are rarely found in what type of societies and why?

    • Have better diet
    • Active lifestyle
    • Short Lifespan
  136. Epidemic patterns of infectious diseases can be found in what type of societies and why?

    • Poor sanitation
    • inadequate sewage disposal
    • contaminated water
  137. Livestock proximity, fertilizer types, landscape modification, and irrigation are all impacts of _______ practices and are some examples major contributors for the spread of disease
  138. Give an example of how food storage can bring disease.
    Ex- the Bubonic plague

    Food storage in peoples homes brought in rats who were covered with infected fleas who passed on the disease to the people
  139. give a few examples of "diseases of civilization"
    • heart disease
    • cancer
  140. Ebola, HIV, SARS, Hantavirus are examples of ____ diseases
  141. Tuberculosis, Whooping cough, Diptheria, Malaria are all examples of ______ diseases
  142. Give a few examples of human-made environmental changes
    • pollution
    • deforestation and reduction of biological diversity
    • global warming