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What 4 fields use osteology?
- Primate anatomy
- Forensic Anthropology
What are the functions of bone? (4)
- Protect and support soft tissue
- Blood cell production
- Fat storage
- Mineral reservoirs (especially calcium)
Bones - Explain biomechanics
- lever systems
- movement by muscles
Name the three types of joints
Ball and socket, hinge, and saddle shaped are all examples of which type of joint?
What type of joint is found between growth centers?
What type of joints can be found I cranial structures?
What is Wolff's Law of Bone Remodeling?
Bone is laid down where needed and resorbed where not needed
What are osteoblasts?
cells that form bones
What are osteoclasts?
Cells that destroy bones
What part of the long bone is the epiphyses?
What part of a long bone is the diaphysis?
What part of the long bone is the metaphysis?
flared ends of the shaft
Name the 3 parts of a long bone
Limbs, hands, feet are all examples of what bone shape?
Cranium, shoulders, pelvis and rib cage are all examples of what bone shape?
Ankle, wrist, spine are all examples of what bone shape?
What two parts make up the outer surface of the bone?
Name the bone type:
walls of bone shafts
external bone surface
Name the bone type:
Ends of long bones
Inside flat bores
What protein makes up 90% of the bone structure?
What is the mineral component that gives bones strength?
What organic compound that is made of protein gives bones their flexibility?
What characterizes mature bones?
- Thin, organized layers
- Replaces immature bone
Name 4 times when bones repair
- Fibrous cellulous
- Osteoblasts respond to injury
- Immature bones mature
Give 2 examples of degenerative changes in bones
- Osteoporosis (bone porosity)
- Decreased estrogen levels
Give two examples of growth disturbances
- Ham's lines
- Dental hypoplasia
Give an example of a joint disease that is affected by age, sex, size, hormones, stress and genetics and is characterized by limping spur formation on the bone and eburnation.
What type of trauma happens when bone flexibility fails
Healing time depends on
- further movement
- health, age, diet, blood supply
Name: "set of bones encircling the brain and making up the skull, exclusive of the jaw
Name: "opening on the bottom of the skull through which the spinal cord passes"
Name: "one quarter of the full complement of teeth, counted from the centerline of the mouth back towards the throat"
Name: "bony protection for the spinal cord consisting of vertebrae"
Name: "two sets of three bones each that are fused to the sacrum and make up the pelvic girdle"
Name: "a major component of blood, functioning primarily to transport oxygen"
red blood cells (erythrocytes)
Name: "a major component of blood, functioning primarily as part of the immune system"
white blood cells (leukocytes)
Name 3 types of Idiosyncratic (individual) skeletal variations
- dental variation
- cranial variation
- postcranial variation
Idiosyncratic variation is the same thing as saying _______ variation
What is Trephination?
-cutting/scraping/chilling holes into the cranium
- Pus producing bacteria
- bacterial disease
- chronic illness
- spirochete bacteria
- lesions, gummas
Dental cones (cavities)
- build up of bacteria and plaque
- pulpitis, abscess
- build up of bacteria and plaque
- bone resporption
- sieve like lesions
- parotic hyperostosis
- cerebra orbitalia
Vitamin D deficiency
Name two simple ways to measure traits in humans
- Blood type
- Genetic information
Name 4 complex ways to measure traits in humans
- Anthropometrics (measurements of the human body)
- Skin color
What is the biological concept of race?
- Division within a species,
- must differ by .25Fst (or 25%)
Human DNA is betweend 0.__ -0.__ Fst
What are the two most varied races?
Mongolian and ethiopians
Give two examples of "the nature of continual variations"
height and skin color
Race is not a biologically constructed notion, but rather a _____ constructed notion that arises from our history, demography, and sociopolitical circumstances
Name: "the main pigment in human skin, occurring in two forms: black and brown"
Name: " cells that produce melanin"
What is "cormic index"?
standing height divided by sitting height
What is intermembral index?
ratio of arm length to leg legnth
Name: "part of the human immune system that helps signal the presence of foreign substances in the body"
Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) System
Name: " statistical measurement of the fraction of variation found between samples"
Name: "a situation in which selection favors a heterozygotic state for a given locus and thus maintains both the recessive and the dominant alleles in a population, even if one or both are deleterious in the homozygous state"
Name: " a population or group of populations within a species that has measurable, defining biological characteristics and a Fst of at least 0.25 relative to other populations in the species"
Scientific concept of race
Name: " a population that meets the criteria defined within the scientific concept of race"
Name: " Set of cultural or ethnic factors combined with easily perceived morphological traits (such as skin reflectance, body shape, cranial structure) in an artificial "biologized" category"
Socially constructed concept of race
Name: " the measuring and study of cranial morphology"
Name: " a distribution wherein biological traits vary in a specific pattern across geography"
Give an example of a clinal trait
Name: "study of genetics with the notion of improving human biology and biological potential; often associated with erroneous and/or simplistic assumptions about the relationship of behavior or cultural traits with simple genetic systems"
Name 3 main types of adaptation
Name 3 physiological adaptations
- developmental acclimatization
what is acclimation
short term changes
what is acclimatization
long term changes
What is developmental acclimatization?
changes during growth
What is homeostasis?
the bodys ability to maintain equilibrium
what is cephalic index
cranial size and shape
what is nasal index
nasal size and shape
Humans vary more than most similar-sized mammals in size and body shape but less in ____ patterns
Human variation in skin color is due to differential density of _____ in the epidermal layers.
More ____ production leads to darker skin
Allen's and Bergmann's rules demonstrate the mammalian-wide patterns of what
heat/cold stress on body form
Human males and females have about a __%-__% difference in body size as well as specific morphological differences in skeletal and muscle morphology
Nearly __% of cranial variation is found within populations and only about __% is found between populations
80% and 20%
____ may end up playing an important role in future human evolution
Blood group allele frequencies vary across human populations due to both ____ _____ and ____ _____
- natural selection
- gene flow
The overall genetic Fst for our species is approximately 0.__, well below the level for subspecies distinction
Comparing differences in socially constructed race categories cannot involve biological comparisons or causes only ______ ones
Name 3 specific aspects of US history that contributed to the use of racial categories
- colonial expansion
- Linnaean classification
- eugenics movement
What is a pathogen?
a disease producing agent
Name: "Created by the United Nations combining economic, life expectancy, education and standard of living variables" abbreviation: HDI
Human development index
Name: "when humans alter sequences of DNA via technological means in order to repair or alter the function of the given sequence of DNA"
What are the five main approaches to the study of human behavioral evolution?
- human behavioral ecology
- evolutionary psychology
- dual-inheritance theory
- biocultural anthropology
Human technological genomic modification may have the effect of (accelerating/decelerating) allele frequency change in some human populations
Biological anthropology and the themes of the scientific method, collaborative investigation, and critical thinking are core to understanding _____
What kind of body shape/size do cold climate populations have?
shorter limbs and long torsos
What kind of body shape/size do hot climate populations have?
short torsos and long legs
Rounded, square heads lose heat slowly and therefore are at an advantage for people in ____ climates
Narrow heads lose heat more quickly and are therefore an advantage for people in ____ climates
Populations in ___ climates tend to have narrow noses
Populations in ___ climates tend to have wide noses
Brain size is closely correlated with _____
There is a __-__% difference in cranial capacities in males and females
Give some examples of different types of stresses
- Hypoxia (altitude stress)
- Ultraviolet radiation
- Nutritional stress
Name an adaptation of people who live in higher altitudes
greater chest dimensions, larger lung volume to adapt to the lessened oxygen
Name a few examples of cultural adaptations
- Wearing a jacket
- Use of technology
- Use of medicine
Anthropometrics is what?
How growth is measured
Type of growth that is achieved by laying down new layers
ex - bones
Type of growth that occurs when cell proliferate from many centers
ex- muscle tissue
Growth is the increase in _____
Development is the increase in _____ _____
Name the seven stages of growth
- old age
What do velocity curves show?
change over time
The ______ hormones control testosterone and estrogen
Artificial deformation of the cranium was a form of
head flattening or head binding
____ ______ is the ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment
What are our basic nutritional needs?
- carbohydrates, proteins, fats.
- they are used for body maintenance, growth and energy
The kind of diet of foragers ate is known these days as the "_____ diet"
Adaptation to ultraviolet light is part of the evolution of what?
Name the 4 steps to the evolutionary approach to variation
- 1. Production
- 3. Maintenance
- 4. Phylogenic reconstruction
Name a few benefits of agriculture
- more, larger edible parts
- easier to harvest
- tastes better
- more energy per acre
- predictable food supply
Name a few costs of agriculture
- increase in disease
- decrease in quality of diet
the narrowing of blood vessels
Vasodilation is the
widening of blood vessels
Name: " the flow of blood to the extremities after exposure to cold"
Lew hunting phenomenon
____ _____ _____ defines the stages of gestation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and seeks to explain the differences in the timing of development, fertility, and death of living organisms.
Life history theory
increase in sedentism, Population growth, plant and animal domestication are all characteristics of the transition to ______
What are two biological impacts of agriculture?
- population growth
Population growth occurs when...?
more people are being born than are dying
What are 3 factors of population growth?
- Decrease in mortality
- Increase in fertility
What was the average life expectancy for foragers?
In agricultural societies, infant survival rate increases because they can start _____ earlier because they have a more stable food supply
What is the difference between epidemic and endemic disease patterns?
epidemic is over a short amount of time, and affects a large amount of people and then starts to die off
endemic is over a long period of time and is always in a population but does not cause a giant spike in infection
What are two common diseases found in forging societies
parasites and zoonoses
give a few characteristics and an example of parasites
ex - lice, pen worms
do not kill you, or if they do they do after a very long period of time
give an an example of zoonoses
west nile virus, tetnus
kills relatively quickly
Non infectious diseases (cancer, cartiovascular disease) are rarely found in what type of societies and why?
- Have better diet
- Active lifestyle
- Short Lifespan
Epidemic patterns of infectious diseases can be found in what type of societies and why?
- Poor sanitation
- inadequate sewage disposal
- contaminated water
Livestock proximity, fertilizer types, landscape modification, and irrigation are all impacts of _______ practices and are some examples major contributors for the spread of disease
Give an example of how food storage can bring disease.
Ex- the Bubonic plague
Food storage in peoples homes brought in rats who were covered with infected fleas who passed on the disease to the people
give a few examples of "diseases of civilization"
Ebola, HIV, SARS, Hantavirus are examples of ____ diseases
Tuberculosis, Whooping cough, Diptheria, Malaria are all examples of ______ diseases
Give a few examples of human-made environmental changes
- deforestation and reduction of biological diversity
- global warming