bio test section 3 chapters 12 & 13

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  1. 3 requirements for genetic mat’l
    • 1. - store info
    • 2 - stable
    • 3 - able to change
  2. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    the compound that contains genetic information; the correct "double helix" structure of DNA was successfully sequenced by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953.
  3. Rosalind Franklin
    Erwin Chargaff
    • Rosalind Franklin contributed x-ray crystallography pictures of DNA.
    • Erwin Chargaff determined the nucleotide base pairing sequences (adenine (A) to thymine (T); and guanine (G) to cytosine (C).
  4. Chargaff's rule
    The amounts of A, T, G, and C in DNA are constant among members of the same species. Vary from species to species. In each species, there are equal amounts of A and T & G and C
  5. DNA uses ____ ____ ____ to store genetic info
    complementary base pairing
  6. Replication is
  7. Prokaryotic Replication.
    Bacteria have a single circular loop of DNA. Replication moves around the circular DNA molecule in both directions
  8. Eukaryotic Replication
    DNA replication begins at numerous points along each linear chromosome
  9. 2 steps of replication
    • Helicase unwinds
    • DNA polymerase constructs new strands
  10. DNA in genes specify information, but information is not
    structure and function
  11. Genetic information is expressed into structure and function through
    protein synthesis
  12. The DNA genetic code is a triplet code in that
    three bases code for a particular amino acid
  13. steps of DNA genetic coding
    • transcription
    • translation
    • DNA polymerase
    • RNA polymerase
  14. transcription
    DNA passes the genetic code to messenger RNA(mRNA)
  15. translation
    mRNA directs the building of a particular polypeptide (protein)
  16. DNA polymerase
    an enzyme that catalyzes (starts/speeds up) replication
  17. RNA polymerase
    enzyme that catalyzes transcription
  18. codons
    Codons are groups of 3 of the 4 RNA bases (U,A, C, G)
  19. 4 properties of the genetic code
    • universal
    • degenerate
    • unambiguous
    • contains stop and start signals
  20. universal
    With few exceptions, all organisms use code the same way. same 20 amino acids with same 64 triplets
  21. Degenerate (redundant)
    There are 64 codons available for 20 amino acids. Most amino acids encoded by two or more codons
  22. Unambiguous (codons are exclusive)
    None of the codons code for two or more amino acids. Each codon specifies only one of the 20 amino acids
  23. Contains start and stop signals
    Punctuation codons. Like the capital letter we use to signify the beginning of a sentence, and the period to signify the end.
  24. DNA replication and transcription take place in the
  25. translation takes place in the
  26. In addition to the mRNA the cell requires ___ and ___ for the translation process
    • ribosomes
    • transfer RNA (tRNA)
  27. The ____ brings the amino acids over to where the protein is being assembled.
  28. The ribosome brings the mRNA which has the ___ in close proximity to the tRNA which has the ____
    • building code
    • amino acid
  29. OPERON-
    a group of structural genes that work as a single unit
  30. Prokaryotes have operons that are
    repressable or inducible.
  31. types of operons in prokaryotes
    • promoter: shoes start point for DNa polymerase
    • operator: DNA sequence where active repressor binds. on/off switch
    • structural genes: genes coding for enzymes of a metabolic pathway
    • regulatory gene: codes for a repressor protein (repressor protein turns operator protein on/off)
  32. Eukaryotes have different control mechanisms
    • Transcriptional and post transcriptional controls (nucleus)
    • translational and post translational controls (cytoplasm)
  33. Transcription is controlled by proteins called
    transcription factors
  34. Posttranscriptional control operates on the
    primary mRNA transcript
  35. Translational Control -
    Determines the degree to which mRNA is translated into a protein product
  36. Posttranslational Control -
    Affects the activity of a protein product
  37. mutation -
    any permanent change in the genetic code; this may be as simple as a simple substitution of a single nitrogenous base or as complex as an extra chromosome
  38. Mutations can be ____ (during DNA replication) or _____
    • spontaneous
    • induced – caused by an environmental agent (uv radiation, tobacco smoke)
  39. 2 types of mutations
    • 1. point mutation: one letter of a genetic codon is changed.  Example = Sickle Cell Anemia
    • 2. frame-shift mutation: A mutation that occurs when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, so that every codon beyond the point of insertion or deletion is read incorrectly during translation. Example – Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome.
  40. Mutations can lead to ___ .  Some genes ___  control ___. If there is a mutation that affects them, then cells can divide ____ _____
    • cancer
    • proto-oncogenes, cell division
    • without control
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bio test section 3 chapters 12 & 13
2013-07-19 00:16:24

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