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2010-06-10 01:03:30
chapter intro

micro ch.123 review
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  1. Microbiology is the study of
  2. The charachteristic that all microorganisms have in common is that they are too small to be seen
    with the naked eye
  3. Pathogenic means
    disease causing
  4. the bacterium that causes the bubonic plaugue is
    yersinia pestis
  5. The irish potato famine was caused by a fungus called
    phytophthora infestans
  6. Hornando Cortez brought infectious diseases such as _____________& ____________to Native Americans
    smallpox & measles
  7. Warfare and infectious diseases are connected because of _____, _________, and exposure to vulnerable diseases.

    In addition, would related bacterial infections such as _____&_____ are a constant threat.
    poor sanitation & malnutrition

    tetanus & gangrene
  8. List the 6 subgroups in microbiology:
    bacteria, archaea, algae, fungi, protazoa, and viruses.
  9. The 6 subgroups are not closely related but are grouped together because of their _______ as well as he teniques used for identifying them, cultivating them, and studying them.
    small size
  10. Microbes are charachterized by being either:
    prokaryote or eukaryote
  11. Prokaryotes
    do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.
  12. Eukaryotes
    do have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
  13. List 2 examples of a prokaryote
    archaea & bacteria
  14. List 4 examples of a eukaryote
    protist, fungi, plants, animals.
  15. List the shapes of bacteria:
    rod, spherical, helical, comma shaped, starshaped, or square.
  16. some bacteria are autotrophic, which means they make thier own food thru
  17. some bacteria are heterotrophic which means they obain thier nutrients from
    organic sources
  18. Some baceria are chemotrophic which means they obtain thier nutrients from
    inorganic substances
  19. Some bacteria can lie in freezing temps, while others can live in
    higher than boiling temps
  20. Some bacteria have __________while others are not capable of moving.
  21. Some bacteria are pathogenic while others are
  22. ancient bacteria are called
  23. archae live in hostile enviroments such as extreme heat, acidic environments, and areas of high concentrations of
  24. If a microbe is discovered in a local waterway, with high temp & high acidity & it does not cause human diseases it probably belongs to a group of
  25. archaea are non-
  26. algae are eukaryotic organisms that
    undergo photosynthesis
  27. phytoplankton are microscopic organisms found on the surface of ________&______
    marine & freshwater environments
  28. Are fungi eukaryotic or prokaryotic?
  29. are fungi autotrophic or heterotrophic?
  30. in humans, some fungi may cause ringworm, athelete's foot, or
  31. List examples of fungi
    yeast, mold
  32. protozoa means
    first animals
  33. are protozoa autotrophs or heterotrophs?
  34. List 2 diseases caused by protozoa
    malaria & african sleeping sickness
  35. Viruses contain either RNA or DNA that is surrounded by a protein coat called a
  36. what kind of microscope is used to view a virus
    electron microscope
  37. are viruses a cell?
  38. list 3 diseases caused by viruses
    Aids, smallpox chickenpox, yellowfever, polio
  39. Helminthes are worms that belong to the
    animal kingdom
  40. list 2 types of disease causing helminthes
    flatworms & roundworms
  41. VAn Leeuwenhoek invented
    the first handheld microscope.
  42. what is spontaneous generation
    formation of living things from non-living matter
  43. Francesco Redi rejected
    spontaneous generation
  44. In pasteur's experiments on spontaneous generation, the purpose of the curve in his flasks containing meat broth was to
    permit circulation of air
  45. a researcher attepts to duplicate the experiments on spontaneous generation conducted by pasteur. Nutrient broth is sealed in glass flasks with curved necks and is sterilized with heat. the broth is cooled to room temperature. After 48 hours the research observes that bacteria populate the broth in the flask. The best explanation for this observation is that the bacteria studied can form
  46. Koch's postulates were formulated while he was studying __________, a disease of sheep, cattle, and humans.
  47. List Koch's Postulates:
    • 1-identify icrobial cells present in blood of infected anials
    • 2-culture te microorganisms in a petri dish (outside the animal)
    • 3-inject a healthy animal with the cultured bactrial cells.
    • 4- observe the infected animal and examine its blood for the same microbe that caused the infection
    • 5- if its the same, it proves the cause of the disease was that particular microorg.
  48. What is agar?
    a powder made from seaweed used for thickening jam
  49. what is nutrient agar?
    agar mixed with meat broth forming a solid nutrient rich medium for culturing pure bacteria.
  50. Edward Jenner was the first to develop a way to induce_______ to a disease without actually getting the disease
  51. What disease did Jenner help prevent by inoculating an 8 yr old boy with fluid from a cowpox blister?
  52. Pasteur made a vaccine by culturing disease=causing microbes and _________(weakened) them by heat
  53. A bacterial culture can double its number of cells every 30 minutes. One bacterial cell placed in nutrient broth leads to the production of _____cells in 1 hour
  54. Improved sewage disposal and clean drinking water helped to prevent outbreaks of many diseases, including
    cholera and typhoid fever
  55. One important metod of personal hygiene is
  56. Paul Eherlich, a german physician-chemist, is known as the father of chemotherapy, because he established
    selective toxicity
  57. what does selective toxicity mean?
    drug must kill microbe but not the patient
  58. what was the first medically useful antibiotic ad who discovered it?
    penicillin by Alexander Fleming