psy 270 1

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psy 270 1
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2010-06-09 00:27:45
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psy 270 1
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  1. žSocial Influence
    • Efforts
    • by one or more individuals to change the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions or
    • behaviors of one or more others
  2. žConformity
    • A
    • change in a person’s behavior or opinion as the result of the real or imagined
    • pressure from a person or group of peoples (Aronson)



    • –Can
    • be disastrous and result in tragedy



    • –Can
    • be adaptive and establish order


  3. 3 Types of Conformity

    • žCompliance- driven by
    • the promise/threat of reward or punishment



    • Obedience-
    • Ordered to comply



    • žIdentification-
    • desire to be like the influencer or to get closer to them



    • ž



    • žInternalization- the
    • beliefs of the influencer are internalized and held independently
  4. conformity is due to ....
    social influences
  5. compliance is a type of
    conformity
  6. obedience is a type of ...
    compliance
  7. dissent
    is a form of being unique
  8. wwhy do we conform
    because of social influences
  9. how do social influnces work
    • We use others as a source of information
    • •The behaviors of others create social norms
    • •The behaviors of others suggest possible actions
  10. what is group think - irving janis
    • •A
    • way of thinking where maintaining group cohesiveness becomes so important that
    • group members ignore facts and override realistic appraisal of information and
    • alternatives
    • •Leads
    • to perceived invulnerability
    • •Narrow
    • focus and maladaptive decision making
  11. mindguard
    • :
    • group members who take on the role of a censor that stops or hides incoming
    • information and who supports consensus see
  12. what are the two factors that affect conformity
    ambiguity And uncertaintly

    • •Conform
    • more in ambiguous situations ad when we are unsure of our own judgment

    • Unanimity
    • Conform
    • less if even just one other person dissents
    • •If
    • others in the group unanimously agree, the pressure to conform is relatively
    • the same whether there is 3, 6, 9 or more people in the group.

    • žPrivate versus Public Decisions
    • •Conform less if decision is made in private
    • ž

    • žCommitment
    • •Conformity decreases if an individual is asked to voice
    • opinion or initial judgment before others in the group do.
    • ž

    • žAccountability
    • •Conform more if held accountable to the group only
    • •Conform less if you are held individually accountable
    • for your decision/judgment

    • ž
    • žThe Person and the
    • Culture
    • •People
    • with high self-esteem and individualistic (vs. collectivistic) cultures tend to
    • conform less.
    • ž

    • žThe Group Exerting
    • Pressure
    • •More
    • conformity if the group:
    • –Has 3 or more members
    • –Has experts
    • –Is important to the individual
    • –Is comparable/similar to the individual in some way
    • –Strong norms for conformity
  13. two types of conformity
    • 1.Informational Social
    • Influence
    • - The need to be accurate
  14. 2.Normative Social
    • Influence
    • - The need to feel accepted
  15. žInformational
    social influence can lead to
    • –Private acceptance:
    • conformity occurs because we genuinely believe others are right



    • •Public compliance: conforming publicly even though you may not believe in
    • what you are doing or saying


  16. Contagion

    • žContagion: rapid
    • spread of emotions and behaviors through a crowd
    • •During an emergency, other people may not know what is
    • going on more than we do. We are likely to adopt their mistakes and
    • misinterpretations.
    • War of
    • the Worlds Incident


  17. Mass psychogenic illness

    • žMass psychogenic illness: a group
    • of people experience the same physical symptoms of illness when there is no
    • physical cause
    • •1998 HS teacher in Tenn. reports smelling gas
  18. When will people conform to informational social
    influence?
    • žWhen the
    • situation is ambiguous
    • •When the situation is a crisis
    • •When other people are experts
  19. Normative Social Influence
    • žresults in public compliance but not necessarily private
    • acceptance
  20. Social Norms
    • rules for acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs that
    • are determined by people in social situations
  21. ž

    Social impact theory
    • ž: the likelihood that people will respond to normative
    • social influence depends on:
    • •Strength: importance of the group
    • •Immediacy: closeness of the group
    • •Number: size of the group
  22. žPeople
    will conform to normative social influence:
    When
    • ž People
    • will conform to normative social influence:
    • •When the group is important
    • •When one has no allies in the group
    • •When the group’s culture is collectivistic
    • •When the group size is 3 or more
  23. žSelf-esteem
    and gender have no effect on normative social influence
    • žSelf-esteem
    • and gender have no effect on normative social influence
  24. Deindividuation

    • žThe loss of a
    • person’s sense of individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against
    • deviant behavior.

    • žIncreased sense of
    • anonymity
    • ž

    • žDoing together what
    • we would not do alone.
    • ž

    žEnvironmental cues
  25. žObedience
    • •One
    • person directly orders one or more others to behave in specific ways, and the
    • other person complies
    • Social Influence
  26. žConformity influences the formation and maintenance of
    social norms and allows society to function smoothly and predictably
    •Conformity can be a shortcut for how to act in a
    situation
    • žConformity influences the formation and maintenance of
    • social norms and allows society to function smoothly and predictably
    • •Conformity can be a shortcut for how to act in a
    • situation
  27. žSocial Facilitation
    (pro)
    • •Effects
    • on performance resulting from the presence of others
  28. žSocial Loafing (con)
    • Decreased
    • effort resulting from diffusion of responsibility when others are present
  29. žEvaluation
    apprehension (con)
    • •Concern
    • over being evaluated by others
  30. žZajonc (1965) – Drive
    theory of social facilitation
    • •The
    • presence of others will improve individual’s performance when they are highly
    • skilled at the task, but will interfere with performance when they are not
    • highly skilled.
  31. žSocial Loafing
    • •Reductions
    • in motivation and effort that occur when individuals work collectively in a
    • group compared with when they work individually as independent co-actors.
    • –Occurs
    • with additive tasks
    • –Effort
    • produced by individuals decreases
  32. žDecision making
    • •Combining
    • and integrating available information in order to choose one out of several
    • possible courses of action.
  33. •Group
    polarization
    • –The
    • tendency of group members to shift toward more extreme positions than those
    • they initially held as a result of group discussion
  34. Antecedents of Groupthink
    • •The group is highly cohesive
    • •The group is isolated
    • •The group has a directive leader
    • •The group is under high stress
    • •Decision-making procedures are poor
  35. •Six common factors in decision making across major
    fiascos
    • 1.Group’s decision
    • limited to a few alternatives
    • 2.Members failed to re-examine their initial decision from the standpoint of
    • non-obvious
    • 3.They neglected courses of action initially evaluated as unsatisfactory
    • 4.Made little or no attempt to obtain information from experts who could supply
    • sound estimates of losses and gains to be expected from alternative courses
    • 5.Selective bias was shown in the way the members reacted to information
    • and judgments from experts, the media and outside critics
    • 6.Spent little time deliberating how the decision might be hindered
  36. žAvoiding groupthink:
    • •Remain impartial
    • •Seek outside opinions
    • •Seek anonymous opinions
    • •Create subgroups
  37. žDiffusion of
    responsibility
    • •Responsibility
    • assumed by bystanders in an emergency is shared among them
    • •the
    • number of bystanders increased the # of individuals who helped decreased and
    • the time before one helped increased.



    • –A
    • victim is less likely to get help if a large number of people are watching the
    • distress à Bystander effect
  38. žPretrial interview of
    potential jurors to uncover signs of bias.
    • žJuror Bias: towards
    • defense or prosecution
    • •Own-race
    • Bias
    • •Death
    • Qualification
  39. žMajority bias in
    deliberating
    • •Reason
    • for unanimous verdict- forces careful consideration of evidence
    • •Larger
    • juries- minorities are more likely to be represented, so less pressure to
    • conform
    • •Elects
    • a foreperson to act as moderator

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