ABA final II

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ABA final II
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2013-08-25 15:26:54
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aba vocab
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  1. Antecedent
    An environmental condition or stimulus change existing or occurring prior to a behavior of interest
  2. Automaticity (of reinforcement)
    Refers to the fact that behavior is modified by its consequences irrespective of the person's awareness.
  3. Aversive Stimulus
    An unpleasant or noxious stimulus
  4. Behavior
    The activity of living organisms
  5. Behavior Change Tactic
    A technologically consistent method for changing behavior derived from one or more principles of behavior, possesses sufficient generality across subjects, settings, and behaviors to warrant its codification and dissemination
  6. Conditioned Punisher
    A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher because of prior pairing with one or more other punishers; sometimes called secondary or learned punisher
  7. Conditioned Reflex
    A learned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the response it elicits.
  8. Conditioned Reinforcer
    A stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more other reinforcers; sometimes called secondary or learned reinforcer
  9. Conditioned Stimulus
    A formerly neutral stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior only after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus or another CS
  10. Consequence
    A stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest
  11. Contingency
    Dependent and/or temporal relations between operant behavior and its controlling variables
  12. Contingent
    Describes reinforcement (or punishment) that is delivered only after the target behavior has occurred
  13. Deprivation
    The state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contracted a particular type of reinforcer
  14. Discriminated Operant
    An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others.
  15. Discriminative Stimulus
    A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced
  16. Environment
    The conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organism or referenced part of the organism exists
  17. Establishing Operation
    An environmental variable that alters the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event and alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced or punished by that stimulus, object or event
  18. Extinction
    The discontinuing of reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior
  19. Habituation
    A decrease in responsiveness to repeated presentations of a stimulus; most often used to describe a reduction of respondent behavior as a function of repeated presentation of the eliciting stimulus over a short span of time
  20. Higher Order Conditioning
    Development of a conditioned reflex by pairing of a neutral stimulus with a conditioned stimulus.  Also called 2ndary conditioning
  21. History of Reinforcement
    An inclusive term referring in general to all of a person's learning experiences and more specifically to past conditioning with respect to particular response classes or aspects of a person's repertoire
  22. Negative Reinforcement
    A stimulus whose termination functions as reinforcement
  23. Neutral Reinforcement
    A stimulus change that does not elicit respondent behavior
  24. Ontogeny
    The history of the development of an individual organism during its lifetime
  25. Operant Conditioning
    Consequences result in an increased or decreased frequency of the same type of behavior under similar motivational and environmental conditions in the future
  26. Phylogeny
    The history of the natural evolution of a species
  27. Positive Reinforcement
    Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions
  28. Principle of Behavior
    A statement describing a functional relation between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables with generality across organisms, species, settings, behaviors, and time
  29. Punisher
    A stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.
  30. Punishment
    Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions
  31. Reflex
    A stimulus-response relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the respondent behavior it elicits
  32. Reinforcement
    Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions
  33. Reinforcer
    A stimulus change that increases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it
  34. Repertoire
    All of the behaviors a person can do or a set of behaviors relevant to a particular setting or task
  35. Respondent Behavior
    The response component of a reflex.  Behavior that is elicited or induced by antecedent stimuli
  36. Respondent Conditioning
    A stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure in which a neutral stimulus is presented with an unconditioned stimulus until the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response
  37. Respondent Extinction
    The repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus
  38. Response
    A single instance or occurrence of a specific class or type of behavior
  39. Response Class
    A group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment
  40. Satiation
    A decrease in the frequency of operant behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer that has followed the behavior
  41. Selection by Consequences
    The fundamental principle underlying operant conditioning.

    All forms of operant behavior are selected, shaped and maintained by their consequences during an individual's lifetime
  42. Stimulus
    A change in an organism’s environment (internal or external) that induces a measurable response
  43. Stimulus Class
    A group of stimuli that share specified common elements along formal, temporal, and/or functional dimensions
  44. Stimulus Control
    A situation in which the frequency, latency, duration, or amplitude of a behavior is altered by the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus
  45. Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing
    A procedure in which two stimuli are presented at the same time, usually repeatedly for a number of trails, which often results in one stimulus acquiring the function of the other stimulus
  46. Three-Term Contingency
    Encompasses the temporal and possibly dependent relations among an antecedent stimulus, behavior, and consequences
  47. Unconditioned Stimulus
    A stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning
  48. Unconditioned Reinforcer
    A stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus
  49. Unconditioned Punisher
    A stimulus change that decreases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history
  50. ABA Design
    A three phase experimental design consisting of an initial baseline phase, an intervention phase, and a return to baseline conditions
  51. Abative Effect
    A decrease in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is increased in reinforcing effectiveness by the same EO
  52. Abolishing Operation
    An EO that decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimuli, object, or event
  53. Alternating Treatments Design
    An experimental design in which two or more conditions are presented in rapidly alternating succession independent of the level of responding
  54. Antecedent Intervention
    A behavior change strategy that manipulates contingency-dependent antecedent stimuli
  55. Applied Behavior Analysis
    The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement of behavior
  56. Ascending Baseline
    A data path that shows an increasing trend in the response measure over time
  57. Aversive Stimulus
    An unpleasant or noxious stimulus
  58. BAB Design
    A three phase experiemntal design that begins with the treatment condition, treatment is withdrawn, and then the treatment is reintroduced
  59. Backward Chaining
    A teaching procedure in which a trainer completes all but the last behavior in a chain which is preformed by the learner, who then receives reinforcement for completing the chain
  60. Baseline
    A condition of an experiment in which the independent variable is not present
  61. Behavior Chain
    A sequence of responses in which each response produces a stimulus change that functions as conditioned reinforcement for that response and as a discriminative stimulus for the next response in the chain
  62. Behavior Trap
    An interrelated community of contingencies of reinforcement that can be especially powerful, producing substantial and long-lasting behavior changes
  63. Behavioral Momentum (High-Probability Request Sequence)
    A metaphor to describe a rate of responding and its resistance to change following an alteration in reinforcement conditions
  64. Celeration
    The change in rate of responding over time
  65. Changing Criterion Design
    An experimental design in which an initial baseline phase is followed by a series of treatment phases consisting of successive and gradually changing criteria for reinforcement or punishment
  66. Conditioned Motivation Operation (CMO)
    A motivating operation whose value-altering effect depends on a learning history
  67. Cumulative Record
    A type of graph on which the cumulative number of responses emitted is represented on the vertical axis
  68. Dependent Variable
    The variable in an experiment that is measured to determine if it changes as a result of manipulations of the independent variable
  69. Descending Baseline
    A data path that shows a decreasing trend in the response measure over time
  70. Differential Reinforcement
    Reinforcing only those responses within a response class that meet specific criteria along some dimensions and placing all other responses in the class on extinction
  71. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)
    A procedure for decreasing problem behavior in which reinforcement is delivered for a behavior that serves as a desirable alternative to the behavior targeted for reduction
  72. Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)
    A procedure for decreasing problem behavior in which reinforcement is delivered for a behavior that is topographically incompatible with the behavior targeted for reduction
  73. Differential Reinforcement of low rates (DRL)
    A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement follows each occurrence of the target behavior that is separated from the previous response by a minimum inter-response time or is contingent on the number of responses within a period of time not exceeding a predetermined criterion
  74. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
    A procedure for decreasing problem behavior in which reinforcement is contingent on the absence of the problem behavior during or at specific times
  75. Discrete Trial
    Any operant whose response rate is controlled by a given opportunity to emit the response
  76. DRI/DRA Reversal Technique
    An experimental technique that demonstrates the effects of reinforcement; it uses DRI/DRA as a control condition instead of a no-reinforcement condition
  77. DRO Reversal Technique
    An experimental technique for demonstrating the effects of reinforcement by using DRO as a control condition instead of a no-reinforcement condition
  78. Ethical Codes of Behavior
    Statements that provide guidelines for members of professional associations when deciding a course of action or conducting professional duties
  79. Evocative Effect
    An increase in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is increased in reinforcing effectivness by the same motivating operation
  80. Exclusion Time-Out
    A procedure for implementing time-out in which contingent on the occurrence of a target behavior the person is removed physically from the current environment for a specified period
  81. Extinction Burst
    An increase in the frequency of responding when an extinction procedure is initially implemented
  82. Fading
    A procedure for transferring stimulus control in which features of an antecedent stimulus controlling a behavior are gradually changed to a new stimulus while maintaining the current behavior
  83. Fixed Interval
    A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is delivered for the first response emitted following the passage of a fixed duration of time since the last response was reinforced
  84. Fixed Ratio
    A schedule of reinforcement requiring a fixed number of responses for reinforcement
  85. Fixed-Time Schedule
    A schedule for the delivery of non-contingent stimuli in which a time interval remains the same from one delivery to the next
  86. Forward Chaining
    A method for teaching behavior chains that begins with the learner being prompted and taught to perform the first behavior in the task analysis; the trainer completes the remaining steps in the chain
  87. Frequency
    A ratio of count per observation time
  88. Functional Analysis
    An analysis of the purposes of problem behavior wherein antecedents and consequences representing those in the person's natural routines are arranged within an experimental design so that their separate effects on problem behavior can be observed and measured
  89. Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
    A systematic method of assessment for obtaining information about the purposes (functions) a problem behavior serves for a person; results are used as a guide to intervention for decreasing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior
  90. Functional Communication Training (FCT)
    An antecedent intervention in which an appropriate communicative behavior is taught as a replacement behavior for problem behavior usually evoked by an EO
  91. Functionally Equivalent
    Serving the same function or purpose creating the same consequences
  92. Generalization
    A generic term for a variety of behavioral processes and behavior change outcomes
  93. High-Probability (high-p) request sequence
    An antecedent intervention in which two to five easy tasks with a known history of learner compliance (the high-p requests) are presented in quick succession immediately before requesting the target task (low-p) request
  94. History of Reinforcement
    An inclusive term referring in general to all of a person's learning experiences and, more specifically, to past conditioning with respect to particular response classes or aspects of a person's repertoire
  95. Imitation
    A behavior controlled by any physical movement that serves as a novel model, excluding vocal-verbal behavior, has formal similarity with the model, and immediately follows the occurrence of the model
  96. Independent Variable
    The variable that is systematically manipulated by the researcher in an experiment to see whether changes in the independent variable produce reliable changes in the dependent variable
  97. Indirect Functional Assessment
    Structured interviews, checklists, rating scales, or questionnaires used to obtain information from people who are familiar with the person exhibiting the problem behavior
  98. Informed Consent
    The potential recipient of services or participant gives his explicit permission before any assessment or treatment is provided
  99. Intermittent schedule of reinforcement (INT)
    A contingency of reinforcement in which some but not all occurrences of the behavior produce reinforcement
  100. Interobserver Agreement (IOA)
    The degree to which two or more independent observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events
  101. Inter-response Time (IRT)
    A measure of temporal locus; defined as the elapsed time between two successive repsonses
  102. Irreversibility
    A situation that occurs when the level of responding observed in a previous phase cannot be reproduced even though the experimental conditions are the same as in the earlier phase.
  103. Magnitude
    The force or intensity with which a response is emitted.
  104. Maintenance
    The extent to which the learner continues to perform the target behavior after a portion or all of the intervention has been terminated
  105. Mand
    An elementary verbal operant that is evoked by an MO and followed by specific reinforcement
  106. Massed Practice
    A self-directed behavior change technique in which the person forces himself to perform an undesired behavior repeatedly which sometimes decreases the future frequency of the behavior
  107. Matching Law
    The allocation of responses to choices available on concurrent schedules of reinforcement; rates of responding across choices are distributed in proportions that match the rates of reinforcement received from each choice alternative
  108. Measurement by permanent product
    A method of measuring behavior after it has occurred by recording the effects that the behavior produced on the environment
  109. Mixed Schedule
    A compound schedule of reinforcement consisting of two or more basic schedules of reinforcement that occur in an alternating (usually random) sequence

    No discriminative stimuli are correlated with the presence or absence of each element of the schedule and reinforcement is delivered for meeting the response requirements of the element in effect at any time.
  110. Momentary Time Sampling
    A measurement method in which the presence or absence of behaviors are recorded at precisely specified time intervals
  111. Multiple Baseline Design
    An experimental design that begins with the concurrent measurement of two or more behaviors in a baseline condition, followed by the application of the treatment variable to one of the behaviors while baseline conditions remain in effect for the other behavior
  112. Multiple schedule
    A compound schedule of reinforcement consisting of two or more basic schedule of reinforcement that occur in an alternating (usually random) requence

    A discriminative stimulus is correlated with the presence or absence of each element of the schedule, and reinforcement is delivered for meeting the response requirements of the element in effect at any time
  113. Multiple Treatment Reversal Design
    Any experimental design that uses the experimental methods and logic of the reversal tactic to compare the effects of two or more experimental conditions to baseline and/or one another
  114. Negative Punishment
    A response behavior is followed immediately by the removal of a stimulus (or a decrease in the intensity of the stimulus), that decreasess the future frequency of similar responses under similar conditions
  115. Neutral Stimulus (NS)
    A stimulus change that does not elicit respondent behavior
  116. Noncontingent Reinforcement (NCR)
    A procedure in which stimuli with known reinforcing properties are presented on fixed-time or variable-time schedules completely independent of behavior; often used as an antecedent intervention to reduce problem behavior
  117. Noncontingent Reinforcement (NCR) Reversal Technique
    An experimental control technique that demonstrates the effects of reinforcement by using noncontingent reinforcement as a control condition instead of a no-reinforcement condition
  118. Non-exclusion Time-Out
    A procedure for implementing time-out in which, contingent on the occurrence of the target behavior, the person remains within the setting but does not have access to reinforcement for a specified period
  119. Normalization
    Philosophy and principle - the belief that people with disabilities should, to the maximum extent possible, be physically and socially integrated into the mainstream of society regardless of the degree or type of disability
  120. Over-correction
    A behavior change tactic based on positive punishment in which, contingent on the problem behavior, the learner is required to engage in effortful behavior directly or logically related to fixing the damage caused by the behavior
  121. Parsimony
    The practice of ruling out simple, logical explanations, experimentally or conceptually before considering more complex or abstract explanations
  122. Partial-Interval Recording
    A time sampling method for measuring behavior in which the observation period is divided into a series of brief time intervals
  123. Planned Activity Check (PLACHECK)
    A variation of momentary time sampling in which the observer records whether each person in a group is engaged in the target behavior at specific points in time
  124. Planned Ignoring
    A procedure for implementing time-out in which social reinforcers - usually attention, physical contact, and verbal interaction - are withheld for a brief period contingent on the occurrence of the target behavior
  125. Positive Practice Overcorrection
    A form of over-correction in which, contingent on an occurrence of the target behavior the learner is required to repeat a correct form of the behavior, or a behavior incompatible with the problem behavior, specified number of times
  126. Positive Punishment
  127. A behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior
  128. Practice Effects
    Improvements in performance resulting from opportunities to perform a behavior repeatedly so that baseline measures can be obtained
  129. Premack Principle
    A principle that states that making the opportunity to engage in a high-probability behavior contingent on the occurrence of a low-frequency behavior will function as a reinforcement for the low-frequency behavior
  130. Ratio Strain
    A behavioral effect associated with abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving from denser to thinner reinforcement schedules
  131. Recovery from Punishment Procedure
    The occurrence of a previously punished type of response without its punishing consequence.  This procedure is analogous to the extinction of previously reinforced behavior and has the effect of undoing the effect of the punishment
  132. Resistance to extinction
    The relative frequency with which operant behavior is emitted during extinction
  133. Response Blocking
    A procedure in which the therapist physically intervenes as soon as the learner begins to emit a problem behavior to prevent completion of the targeted behavior.
  134. Response Cost
    The contingent loss of reinforcers producing a decrease of the frequency of behavior, a form of negative punishment
  135. Reversal Design
    Any experimental design in which the researcher attempts to verify the effect of the independent variable by reversing responding to a level obtained in a previous condition; encompasses experimental designs in which the independent variable is withdrawn or reversed in its focus
  136. Schedule of Reinforcement
    A rule specifying the environmental arrangements and response requirements for reinforcement
  137. Schedule Thinning
    Changing a contingency of reinforcement by gradually increasing the response ratio or the extent of the time interval.
  138. Self-control
    A person's ability to delay gratification by emitting a response that will produce a larger delayed reward over a response that produces a smaller but immediate reward; A person's behaving in a certain way so as to change a subsequent behavior
  139. Self-Evaluation
    A procedure in which a person compares his performance of a target behavior with a predetermined goal or standard.
  140. Self-Instruction
    Self-generated verbal responses (covert or overt) that function as rules or response prompts for a desired behavior
  141. Self-Management
    The personal application of behavior change tactics that produces a desired change in behavior
  142. Self-Monitoring
    A procedure whereby a person systematically observes his behavior and records the occurrence or non-occurrence of a targeted behavior
  143. Sensory Extinction
    The process by which behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement are placed on extinction by masking or removing the sensory consequence
  144. Sequence Effects
    The effects on a subject's behavior in a given condition that are the result of the subject's experience with a prior condition
  145. Shaping
    Using differential reinforcement to produce a series of gradually changing response classes; Each response class is a successive approximation toward a terminal behavior
  146. Single-subject Design
    A wide variety of research designs that use a form of experimental reasoning called baseline logic to develop the effects of the independent variable on the behavior of individual subjects
  147. Social Validity
    Refers to the extent to which target behaviors are appropriate, intervention procedures are acceptable, and important and significant changes in target and collateral behaviors are produced
  148. Split-middle line of Progress
    A line drawn through a series of graphed data points that shows the overall trend in the data; drawn through the intersections of the vertical and horizontal middles of each half of the charted data and then adjusted up or down so that half of all the data points fall on or above and half fall on or below the line
  149. Spontaneous Recovery
    A behavioral effect associated with extinction in which the behavior suddenly begins to occur after its frequency has decreased to its pre-reinforcement level or stopped entirely
  150. Stimulus Delta
    A stimulus in the presence of which a given behavior has not produced reinforcement in the past
  151. Systematic desensitization
    A behavior therapy treatment for anxieties, fears, and phobias that involves substituting one response, generally muscle relaxation, for the unwanted behavior
  152. Target Behavior
    The response class selected for intervention; can be defined either functionally or topographically
  153. Task Analysis
    The process of breaking a complex skill or series of behaviors into smaller, teachable units, also refers to the results of this process
  154. Time-out from positive reinforcement
    The contingent withdrawal of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement or the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a specified period of time
  155. Time-out Ribbon
    A procedure for implementing non-exclusion time-out in which a child wears a ribbon or wristband that becomes discriminative for receiving reinforcement
  156. Time Sampling
    A measurement of the presence or absence of behavior within specific time intervals.  It is most useful with continuous and high-rate behaviors
  157. Token Economy
    A system whereby participants earn generalized conditioned reinforcers as an immediate consequence for specific behaviors.
  158. Topography
    The physical form or shape of a behavior
  159. Total-Task Chaining
    A variation of forward chaining in which the learner receives training on each behavior in the chain during each session
  160. Unconditioned Motivating Operation (UMO)
    A motivating operation whose value-altering effect does not depend on a learning history
  161. Variable Ratio (VR)
    A schedule of reinforcement requiring a varying number of responses for reinforcement
  162. Variable-Time Schedule (VT)
    A schedule for the delivery of non-contingent stimuli in which the interval of time from one delivery to the next randomly varies around a given time
  163. Visual Analysis
    A systematic approach for interpreting the results of behavioral research and treatment programs that entails visual inspection of graphed data for variability, level, and trend within and between experimental conditions
  164. Explanatory fiction
    A fictitious or hypothetical variable that often takes the form of another name for the observed phenomenon it claims to explain and contributes nothing to a functional account or understanding of the phenomenon.  Ex intelligence or cognitive awareness.
  165. Whole-Interval Recording
    A time sampling method for measuring behavior in which the observation period is divided into a series of brief time intervals; at the end of each interval, the observer records whether the target behavior occurred throughout the entire interval
  166. Private Event
    Anything that stimulates only one individual.  Usually within the skin, but not always.  Four ways to tact them:  Public accompaniment, Collateral Responses, Common Properties, Response Reduction

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