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2013-07-19 19:56:54

chapter 5
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  1. federalism
    divides pwr between two separate authorities - national and state
  2. Unitary system
    authority lies in national govt. - subnational(states) can only have pwr granted by national government
  3. Federation
    national govt. relies on states for authority
  4. home rule
    power of local govt to pass laws affecting local affairs
  5. intergorvernmental relations
    all interactions among the govts and their officials
  6. laboratories of democracy
    ability of states to experiment/innovate in public policy
  7. delegated/enumerated powers
    pwrs specifically mentioned in Constitution belonging to national govt
  8. Necessary and Proper Clause
    Implied/Elastic Clause
    clause in Articel 1, Sec.8 grants Congress pwr to enact all laws necessary and proper for carrying out reponsibilities
  9. implied powers
    pwrs not specifically mention in Constitution belonging to Congress, inferred as necessary and proper for carrying out enumerated pwrs
  10. national supremacy clause
    clause in Article 6 declaring national law supreme to state law
  11. concurrent powers
    powers belonging to both national and state govt.
  12. reserved powers
    pwrs not granted to national govt or specifically denied to the states - 10th amendment- pwr goes to the states
  13. dual federalism
    early concept of federalism, national and state govts function separately
  14. cooperative federalism
    national and state govt work together
  15. Centralized federalism
    national govt assumes primary responsibilities for nation's goals - directs state/local govts
  16. new federalism
    attempts to return pwr to states and reduce role of national govt in domestic affairs
  17. representative federalism
    asserts no constitutional division of pwr exist btwn national/state govt - states maintain Const. by selecting president and members of Congress
  18. initiative
    allows specific #/% of voters by petition to place Constitutional amendments/state law on ballot for adoption/rejection by state electorate
  19. referenda
    proposed laws/const. amend. submitted to voters for direct approval/rejection
  20. recall
    election that allows voters to decide whether or not to remove elected officials before their term expires
  21. Grants-in-Aid
    payments of funds from national govt. to state/local govt. or from state to local govts
  22. categorical grants
    fed. grants to state/local govts for specific purpose/project e.i. Medicaid & Food stamps
  23. block grant
    for general govt function
  24. Devolution
    passing down of responsibilities from nat->state
  25. coercive federalism
    direct federalism orders(mandates) to state/local govt to perform service/comfrom with fed law
  26. preemption
    total or partial federal assumption of power on a particular field
  27. total preemption
    fed. govt. assumes all regulatory pwr in certain field
  28. partial preemption
    fed. govt assumes some regulatory pwr
  29. standard partial preemption
    form of partial preemption in which states are permitted to regulate activities already reg. by fed govt if state is as stringent
  30. federal mandates
    direct orders to state/local govt to perform paticular activity/comply w/ fed. law
  31. unfunded mandates
    mandates that impose costs on state/local govt w/out reimbursement from fed. govt