Chem Exam I

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mbailey585
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227664
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Chem Exam I
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2013-07-20 13:35:08
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Chem Exam Carbohydrates Diabetes Insulin Osmolality
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Chem Exam I, Carbohydrates, Diabetes, Insulin and Osmolality: 1-25
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  1. The total glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1C) levels in a hemosylate reflect the:

    A.    Average blood glucose levels of the past 6-8 weeks.
    B.    Blood glucose level at the time the sample is drawn
    C.    The degree of anemia in a patient.
    D.    Average blood glucose levels of the past week
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The conversion of glucose or other hexoses to lactate or pyruvate is called:

    A.    Glycogenesis
    B.    Glycogenolysis
    C.    Gluconeogenesis
    D.    Glycolysis
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Insulin may be described by all of the following statements EXCEPT:

    A.    It is a two-chain polypeptide
    B.    C-peptide is the active form
    C.    Synthesized from proinsulin
    D.    Synthesized by beta cells in the pancreas
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. A normal glucose level of 95 mg/dL is found following a 12 hour overnight fast. This normal glucose level is maintained by:

    A.    Glycogen breakdown by muscle.
    B.    Glycogen breakdown by the liver.
    C.    Fructose stored in the pancreas.
    D.    The brain uses very little glucose at rest.
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Glucose is stored in the muscle and liver as:

    A.    Maltose
    B.    Triglyceride
    C.    Glycogen
    D.    Lactose
    E.    Glucagon
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. An adult diabetic with renal complications has the following results:

    Sodium    133 mEq/L
    BUN    84 mg/dL
    Glucose    487 mg/dL
    Creatinine    5.0 mg/dL

    On the basis if these results, the calculated serum osmolality is:

    A.    290 mOsm/kg
    B.    323 mOsm/kg
    C.    709 mOsm/kg
    D.    266 mOsm/kg
    B. Osmolality = (2 x Na) + glucose/18 + BUN/2.8
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Each of the following are main group classifications of carbohydrates except:

    A.    Polysaccharides
    B.    Oligosaccharides
    C.    Tribisaccharides
    D.    Monosaccharides
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Monitoring long-term glucose control in patients with adult onset diabetes mellitus can best be accomplished by measuring:

    A.    hemoglobin A1C (glycosylated hemoglobin)
    B.    Glucose tolerance testing
    C.    Weekly fasting 7 AM serum glucose
    D.    2-hour postprandial serum glucose
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Pregnant women with symptoms of thirst, frequent urination or unexplained weight loss should have which of the following tests performed?

    A.    Lactose tolerance test
    B.    Tolbutamide test
    C.    Epinephrine tolerance test
    D.    Glucose tolerance test
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. In cases of hypoglycemia, the body responds by releasing:

    A.    Insulin and thyroxine
    B.    Sorbitol and fructose
    C.    Glucagon and epinephrine
    D.    Ketoacids and proteins
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the conversion of starch to glucose and maltose?

    A.    Amylase (AMS)
    B.    Isocitric dehydrogenase (ICD)
    C.    Malate dehydrogenase (MD)
    D.    Creatine kinase (CK)
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. One of the acute complications of diabetes mellitus is:

    A.    Coronary artery disease
    B.    Microalbuminuria
    C.    Ketoacidosis
    D.    Blindness
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. In a type I diabetic, insulin concentration is:

    A.    Correlated to age of onset
    B.    Elevated
    C.    Low
    D.    Normal
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Autoimmune disorders are associated with which of the following types of diabetes?

    A.    Non-insulin-dependent
    B.    Gestational
    C.    Type I
    D.    Type II
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which of the following statements may be associated with the activity of insulin?

    A.    Increases blood glucose levels
    B.    Stimulates glycogenesis in the liver
    C.    Stimulates release of hepatic glucose into the blood
    D.    Decreases glucose uptake by muscle and fat cells
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. The hormone that facilitates the entry of glucose into most cells is:

    A.    Insulin
    B.    I don’t know, but I could really use some glucose at this point
    C.    Glucagon
    D.    Cortisol
    E.    Epinephrine
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. What are three symptoms or signs of diabetes mellitus?
    • 1. polydipsia - increased thirst
    • 2. polyuria - increased urination
    • 3. polyphagia - increased hunger
  18. Besides glycogen, what can be used by the liver to produce glucose?
    Lipids
  19. What is the process referred to in question 18 known as?

    A.    Glycogenesis
    B.    Glycogenolysis
    C.    Gluconeogenesis
    D.    Glycolysis
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Where is insulin produced?
    The pancreas - inside the golgi complex of beta cells in the Islet of Langerhans where pro-insulin is cleaved into insulin and C-peptide.
  21. An increase in serum ketones is indicative of an increase in the metabolism of what?
    Fat metabolism (lipids)
  22. Name two of the ketone bodies.
    • 1. acetone
    • 2. acetoacetic acid
    • 3. beta-hydroxybutyric acid
  23. Please differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes based on the following list of features:































     

    TYPE 1

    TYPE2

    Typical age of onset:
    (childhood, adlut)

     

     

    Serum insulin conc.:
    (high, low, normal etc.)

     

     

    Autoimmune association:

     

     

    Typical patient body type:
    (heavy, thin,



    •  
    • TYPE 1
    • TYPE2
    • Typical age of onset:
    • (childhood, adlut)
    • Childhood
    • adult
    • Serum insulin conc.:
    • (high, low, normal etc.)
    • low
    • high
    • Autoimmune association:
    • yes
    • no
    • Typical patient body type:
    • (heavy, thin, average, etc.)
    • thin
    • Average to heavy


  24. A 45-year-old woman has a fasting glucose concentration of 95 mg/dL and a 2-hour postprandial glucose concentration of 105 mg/dL. The statement which best describes this patient’s fasting glucose concentration is:

    A.    Abnormal; indicating hypoglycemia
    B.    Normal; reflecting glycogen breakdown by the liver
    C.    Abnormal; indicating diabetes mellitus
    D.    Normal; reflecting glycogen breakdown by skeletal muscle

    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. What are the consequences of poorly controlled blood glucose levels in a long term (15 years) diabetic? (please list at least 3 consequences)
    • 1. blindness - glaucoma
    • 2. neurodegeneration - neuropathy
    • 3. kidney failure - nephropathy

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