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Pheochromocytomas arise from what type of cells?
The organ receiving the most radiation burden from either 123 MIBG or 131 MIBG is:
The most common extracranial solid malignant tumor found in infants and children is:
The standard dose for a voiding cystogram is:
1.0 mCi of 99m Tc O4
Testicular torsion is:
A surgical emergency
It is important to tape the penis cephalic when doing a testicular scan because:
It is very vascular
A testicular scan that show a horseshoe or half-moon shaped area of photopenia surrounding the testicle is like a (an):
The best radiopharmaceutical for diagnosing glomerular filtration abnormalities is:
99m Tc DTPA
The best radiopharmaceutical for imaging a renal space occupying lesion is:
99m Tc DMSA
The DTST for a renogram is:
The kidneys span the distance b/n the:
12th thoracic vertebrae and 3rd lumbar vertebrae
The best view for demonstrating a horseshoe kidney is the:
When imaging a patient with a ptotic kidney, the technologist should take images in the:
Supine and upright position
On a renal scan, the right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney. Because of this, the technologist should:
Continue the scan bc this is normal
With planar scintigraphy, the kidney may appear smaller than its normal size if:
The long axis is not parallel to the surface of the camera crystal
A neobladder made from a portion of the small bowel is called:
The most accurate nuclear medicine technique for measuring renal size is:
SPECT imaging with morphologic agent DMSA
If normal resting cardiac output is 5 L/min; the total renal blood flow would be approximately:
If normal effective renal plasma flow is about 600 ml/min, normal glomerular filtration rate is:
ACEI augmented renal studies are performed in patients suspected to have:
RAS- related hypertension
A morphologic renal tracer is noted for its:
Retention in the renal parenchyma for a prolonged period of time
The two most common agents used for morphologic renal imaging are:
99m Tc DMSA and 99m Tc Glucoheptonate
Two common agents used for functional renal imaging are:
99m Tc MAG3 and 99m Tc DTPA
Absolute renal function typically refers to the:
ERPF and GFR
Common cortical imaging agents include:`
99m Tc DMSA and 99m Tc Glucoheptonate
A patient is scheduled for a diuretic renal imaging study. The technologist prepares the radiopharmaceutical and:
A diuretic renal imaging study is most helpful in differentiating:
A dilated from an obstructed renal collecting system
A renogram (time-activity curve) shows prompt uptake of the tracer, with activity in the kidney peaking at 3-5 minutes after injection to less than 50% of peak value by 20 minutes. The technologist should:
Suspect this to be normal
After the injection of furosemide in a diuretic renal imaging study, the washout activity from the collecting system has a clearance half- time of less than 10 minutes. this is most likely indicative of a(n):
Dilated but unobstructed kidney
Morphologic renal imaging can be used to document:
Global and regional changes in renal function
A patient is scheduled for an indirect cystogram. The technologist should:
Prepare the tracer dose for intravenous injection
Patient preparation for testicular scintigraphy includes:
The taping of the penis over the pubis
The most common radiopharmaceutical used in testicular scintigraphy is:
99m Tc Pertechnetate
What are 2 reasons for doing a morphologic renal scan?
- Dx of acute/ chronic polynephritis
- Determine which kidney is doing more work
What are the three most common radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging (functional and morphologic), and what are the standard doses?
- 99m Tc MAG 3 (Mercaptoacetyltriglycine 3mCi)
- 99m Tc DTPA (Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid 10mCi)
- 99m Tc DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid 5mCi)
Explain what happens during a normal renogram
PERFUSION: 99m Tc MAG3 goes through glomerulla and is uptaken by the tubules
EXTRACTION: 99m Tc MAG3 is uptake by proximal renal tubule; urine is being made
EXCRETION: After lasix is administered, urine output is increased causing patient to void and lasix to washout.
List 4 indications for doing a functional renogram
- - Evaluate renal blood flow and function
- - Evaluate renal trauma
- - Dx of renovascular hypertension
- - Detect and evaluate renal collecting system obstruction
Explain the rule of ten in regards to pheochromocytoma imaging.
- 10% pediatric
- 10% malignant
- 10% bilateral
- 10% are extra-adrenal
What is Captopril and how does it relate to renal imaging?
Captopril is an ace inhibitor used to determine whether a patient has renal stenosis contributing to renovascular HTN
MIBG is primarily used to image what type of tumors?
Pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas
MIBG resembles what two chemicals?
Norepinephrine and guanethidine
What are some drugs that interfere with MIBG uptake?
- Cocaine- stop 2 weeks prior to scan
- Tricyclic antidepressants- stop 6 weeks prior to scan
- Adrenergic blockers (beta blockers) - stop 2 weeks prior to scan
- Phenylpropanolamine (Sudafed and other OTC cold drugs)- stop 2 weeks prior
How do you calculate GFR?
- U= urine concentration (cpm/ml)
- V= timed urine collection (ml/min)
- P= plasma concentration (cpm/ml)
Dilation of the renal pelvis and ureters
What are the 4 major functions of the kidney?
- Excretion of waste
- Resorption of important body constituents
- Maintenance of acid-base balance
- Maintenance of body fluid
What is the basic unit of the kidney?