Final Ch24 Respiratory System

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issacgoboom
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227793
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Final Ch24 Respiratory System
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2013-07-22 00:35:50
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  1. pulmonary ventilation
    move air in/out of lungs
  2. external respiration
    • exchange gases
    • air-blood
  3. respiration processes
    • pulmonary ventilation
    • external respiration
    • transportation of gases
    • internal respiration
    • cell respiration
  4. internal respiration
    • exchange gases
    • blood - cells
  5. cell respiration
    • glucose > ATP
    • uses O2
    • makes CO2
  6. Functions of respiratory system
    • gas exchange
    • move air
    • filter air
    • vocal production
    • smell
    • acid-base regulation
  7. Conducting zone
    • moves air
    • nose, nasal cavities
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchus and its branches
  8. Respiratory zone
    • exhchange gases
    • respiratory bronchioles
    • alveoli and alveolar ducts
  9. Parts of conduct zone
    • Upper respiratory tract
    • Lower respiratory tract
  10. Upper respiratory tract
    • above thoracic cavity
    • nose
    • pharynx
  11. lower respiratory tract
    • whithin thoracic cavity
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • lung
  12. Nose
    • external nares
    • vestibule
    • nasal septum
    • nasal condhae and meatus superior, middle, inferior
    • posterior nasal aperture
    • olfactory epithelium
    • paranasal sinuses
  13. Nostril
    external nares
  14. nasal septum
    cartilagenous part of the nose
  15. Nasal conchae & meatus tissue
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells
  16. Parts of nasal conchae
    meatus superior, middle, inferior
  17. Posterior nasal aperture
    internal nares
  18. Paranasal sinuses
    • Maxillary sinus
    • ethmoidal sinus
    • sphenoidal sinus
    • Frontal sinus
  19. pharynx
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  20. Nasopharynx tissue
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  21. nasopharynx parts
    • pharyngeal and tubal tonsils
    • pharyngotympanic tube
  22. Oropharynx tissue
    stratified squamous epithelium
  23. oropharynx parts
    • palatine tonsils
    • lingual tonsils
  24. Laryngopharynx tissue
    stratified squamous epithelium
  25. laryngopharynx
    • to esophagus (food)
    • to larynx (air)
  26. Larynx
    • voice box
    • hyoid bone to trachea
  27. larynx functions
    • air passage: cartilages
    • vocal production: vocal cords
  28. Larynx tissues superior to vocal cords
    stratified squamous epithelium
  29. Larynx tissues inferior to vocal cords
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  30. Larynx cartilages
    • thyroid cartilage
    • cricoid cartilage
    • epiglottis
    • artenoid (2)
    • coniculate (2)
    • cuneiform (2)
  31. Laryngeal prominence
    • part of thryroid cartilage
    • adam's apple
  32. Cricoid cartilage
    • larynx cartilage
    • inferior, ring of cartilage
  33. Epiglottis
    • larynx cartilage
    • closes during swallowing
  34. arytenoid
    • larynx cartilage
    • anchor the vocal cords
  35. Larynx vocal muscles
    • cricoarytenoid muscle
    • transverse arytenoid muscle
  36. Larynx vocal structures
    • vocal cords
    • vestibular folds
    • rima glottidis
    • glottis
    • cricoarytenoid and transverse arytenoid muscles
  37. Vocal cords
    • vocal folds
    • elastic ct + simple squamous epith
  38. Vestibular folds
    false vocal cords
  39. rima glottis
    opening of larynx vocal
  40. glottis
    rima glottidis + vocal cords
  41. trachea
    • windpipe
    • move air fast
    • pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  42. trachea parts
    • 16-20 hyeline cartilage rings
    • trachealis muscle
    • carina
  43. hyeline cartilage of trachea
    • 15-20 cartilage rings
    • keep trachea open
    • incomplete posteriorly
  44. trachealis muscle
    • trachea
    • posterior wall¬†
    • contracts during cough
  45. carina
    part of trachea
  46. Bronchial tree
    • primary main bronchus (R&L)
    • secondary lobar bronchi (3 right; 2 left)
    • tertiary segmental bronchi (10 each lung)
    • bronchioles
    • terminal bronchioles
  47. bronchioles
    • <1mm diameter
    • elastic c.t replaces cartilage
    • simple cuboid or columnar w/o cilia
    • smooth muscle
  48. terminal bronchioles
    part of the bronchial tree
  49. Respiratory zone parts
    • respiratory bronchioles
    • alveolar ducts
    • alveolar sacs
    • alveoli
  50. Respiratory bronchioles
    lead into alveolar ducts
  51. alveolar ducts
    lead into alveoli
  52. alveolar sacs
    cluster of alveoli
  53. alveoli
    • part of respiratory zone
    • functional units of gas exchange
    • elastic c.t.¬†
    • macrophages
  54. Pneumocyte type I
    • alveolar type I cells
    • squamous epithelium
  55. Pneumocyte type II cells
    • alveolar type II cells
    • makes pulmonary surfactant
  56. Respiratory membrane
    • alveolar
    • capillary epithelium
    • basal lamina
  57. Stratified squamous epithelium is found in...
    • vestibule
    • oro- and laryngopharynx
    • larynx above vocal cords
  58. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium is found in
    • nasal cavity
    • nasopharynx
    • larnx below vocal cords
    • trachea, bronchi
  59. simple cuboidal epithelium is found in
    bronchioles
  60. simple squamous epithelium is found in
    alveoli
  61. parts of a lung
    • apex
    • base
    • surfaces
    • cardiac notch
    • hilium
  62. Apex
    superior tip of the lungs
  63. base
    diaphragmatic surface of lungs
  64. Lung surfaces
    • costal
    • vertebral
    • mediastinal
  65. Cardiac notch
    in the L lung
  66. Hilum
    root of the lungs
  67. hilum parts
    • pulmonary art and veins
    • primary bronchus
    • nerves
    • lymph vessels
  68. lobes of the lung
    • right: superior lobe, middle lobe, inferior lobe
    • left: suprior lobe, inferior lobe
  69. fissures of the lung
    • left: oblique fissure
    • right: oblique fissure
    • horizontal fissure
  70. Pleura parts
    • parietal pleura
    • visceral pleura
  71. Pleural cavity
    • between 2 pleura
    • maintains vacuum around lungs
  72. Pleural fluid
    • prevents friction
    • allows easy movement of lungs
  73. Gas exchange blood suply
    • pulmonary arteries
    • pulmonary veins
  74. Lung tissue blood supply
    • bronchial arteries
    • bronchial veins
  75. Parasympathetic nerve supply
    bronchoconstriction
  76. Sympathetic nerve supply
    • bronchodilation
    • vasoldialtion, vasoconstriction
  77. Breathing muscles
    • diaphragm
    • intercostal muscles
  78. Diaphragm
    • inhale
    • flattens - increases thoracic volume
  79. external intercostal muscles
    • inhale
    • pulls up and out
  80. internal intercostal muscles
    • exhale
    • pulls down and in
  81. Neural control of lungs
    • medulla (rhytmicity area)
    • pons
    • hypothalamus, limbic (emotions)
    • cerebrum (conscious control)

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