Chapter 17 From Gene to protein
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process by which DNA directs synthesis of proteins or RNA
site of translationfacilitate orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptide chains
the strand of DNA that is transcribed.
Only one strand of the double helix is transcribed at a time, and generally it is always the same strand that is transcribed.
nucleotide where RNA synthesis actually begins
prokaryotesterminator sequence in DNA
Modification of pre-mRNA that allow transcript to exit nuclear envelope.
5' Cap addedPoly-A tail addedThese facilitate exiting the nuclear envelopeprotect against degradation by hydrolytic enzymeshelp ribosomes attach to 5' end of mRNA.
RNA splicing removes noncoding RNA
aka intervening sequencesnoncoding segments of nucleic acid that lie between coding regions
nucleotide triplet at end end of a tRNAbase-pairs with complementary codon on mRNA
changes in a single nucleotide pair of a genemay be invisible if it results in production of the same amino acid
substitution of stop codon for an amino acid codon.
results in early termination of translationnearly always produces nonfunctional protein
The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template.
mRNA nucleotide tripletwritten in 5' to 3' direction
A region of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule.
modified form of guanine nucleotide added to 5' end after transcription of the first 20-40 nucleotides performed by enzymes
A sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed.
base pairing at third position of mRNA codon does not necessarily have to be exact.
- tRNA: 3' - UCU - 5' can bind with either
- mRNA: 5' - AGA - 3' or
- mRNA: 5' - AGG - 3'
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. The E site is the place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome. (E stands for exit.)
A nucleotide-pair substitution that has no observable effect on the phenotype; for example, within a gene, a mutation that results in a codon that codes for the same amino acid.
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of “language” from nucleotides to amino acids.
A specific nucleotide sequence in the DNA of a gene that binds RNA polymerase, positioning it to start transcribing RNA at the appropriate place.
in prokaryotesDNA sequence that signals the end of transcription
addition of 50-250 Adenine nucleotides
An RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme, such as an intron that catalyzes its own removal during RNA splicing.
string of ribosomes along a single strand of mRNA, thus creating many copies of the peptide at once
A genetic information system in which a set of three-nucleotide-long words specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
the code of three nucleotides, occurring in sequence, that comprise an amino acid.
The sequence of bases can then be read as nonoverlapping sets of triplets, each of which id's an amino acid.
Some triplets code for like amino acidsOthers code for stop or startbuilds in redundancy but not ambiguity
RNA polymerase moves along DNA, untwisting the double helixexposes 10-20 bp at a timereads DNA 3' to 5'builds RNA 5' to 3'in the wake of RNA poly II, the transcript peels away from the template and then the double helix reforms
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes.
A change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA or in the DNA or RNA of a virus.
A mutation occurring when nucleotides are inserted in or deleted from a gene and the number inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the subsequent nucleotides into codons.
replacement of one nucleotide and its partner with another pair of nucleotidestypically missense
transfer RNA (tRNA)
An RNA molecule that functions as a translator between nucleic acid and protein languages by carrying specific amino acids to the ribosome, where they recognize the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
cut-and-paste that removes large portions of original pre-mRNA transcript.
decreased from ~27,000 to ~1,200 nucleotidesremoves introns, splices exons
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