Encapsulated in tendon fibers near junction of muscle and tendon fibers.
What does the Golgi Tendon Organ sense?
Amount of tension in a contracted muscle
What is autogenic inhibition?
The inhibatory signal the CNS sends to the muscle when tension is too high
Does strength training increase or inhibit the activity of the golgi tenton organ?
What are joint receptors?
Proprioceptors in the joints that relate body position awareness to sensory cortex
What are cutaneous receptors?
"Sensors that relate pressure
What structures in the labyrinth of the ear help with body position awareness?
Semicircular canals and utricles (hair cells)
What do semicircular canals do in relation to proprioception?
The fluid inside the semicircular canals moves and responds to angular movement (going in circles)
What do utricles do in proprioception?
They respond to linear and gravitational movement to maintain center of gravity
What is the upper cervical neck reflex?
Remnant from infancy; dorsiflexion facilitates extension of limbs while ventriflexion facilitates flexion
What is neuromuscular patterning?
"The patterning in the brain of proprioceptive reflexes for skilled movements
"How does the ""centipede's dilemma"" relate to neuromuscular patterning?"
"When you think about what you are doing in a movement that has been patterned
"Which has decreased over time
kcal in or kcal out?"
What is the equation for total body mass?
TBM = Fat Mass + Lean Body Mass
What are 7 functions of fat in the human body?
(1) Insulation (2) Cushioning (3) Greatest capacity of stored energy (4) Cell membrane structure (5) Myelin sheaths of nerves (6) Absorbs fat soluble vitamins (7) Backbone for steroid hormones
How does hydrostatic weighing work?
"Constituents are separated based on their relative specific gravity compared to water. Fat floats
What are the specific gravities of fat mass and lean body mass?
"Fat mass is ~ 0.9
What is the term given to the activity of measuring the body?
What types of body composition measurements are most commonly used?
How does one calculate BMI?
Weight divided by height squared
What is a shortcoming of BMI?
"Muscle weighs more than fat
What are the two body types associated with male and female?
Male: Apple or Android Female: Pear or Gynoid
Which body type is associated with high plasma insulin?
"Which body type is associated with lower triglyceride lipase activity
Which body type is associated with lower HDL cholersterol counts?
How does bioelectrical analysis work?
A small charge in introduced to subject. Fat insulates while lean body mass conducts. The amount of electrical impedence indicates fat to lean ratio.
What are some shortcomings of bioelectrical analysis?
"It tends to underestimate fat mass for very obese individuals and overestimate fat mass for very lean individuals
How does infrared interactance work?
Infrared beams refract and reflect differently off lean and fat body mass and these reflections and refractions can be measured to obtain a fat to lean ratio
What are some shortcomings of infrared interactance?
Only uses one test site and fat distribution is different across the body
"What are the four compartments in the 4-compartment model
and how are they categorized into 2 compartments?"
What is the stupid fat burning zone?
The fiction that working at less than max heart rate is just as beneficial as working at max heart rate
What are 4 benefits of working out as hard as possible?
"Greater aerobic fitness
When should a person NOT work at maximum intensity?
When biomechanics restricts doing so safely (joint considerations) or when a person is only just beginning training
What are the three types of muscle? Which types are consciously controlled?
What is the smallest functional contractile unit of skeletal muscle?
Does muscle have a good or poor blood supply?
Muscle fibers have an excellent blood supply that penetrates the entire fiber system
What is the most important element in muscle contraction?
How does a muscle perform work?
What are the two types of concentric muscle action?
Allodynamic (with a sticking point at 100% recruitment) and isodynamic (100% recruitment at all angles in range of motion)
What muscle action results in no visible joint angle change?
What muscle action results in negative action?
Which muscle action requires less oxygen and less neural recrutiment?
How is calcium maintained in the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
It is constantly returned to the SR by the magnesium-ATPase active transport pump and bound by Calsequestrin for storage
What are the 7 steps in sliding filament theory?
(1) Nerve stimulates membrane potential change (2) Transverse tubules conduct impulse to interior of muscle fibers (3) Calcium is released from terminal cisternae (4) Calcium binds to troponin (5) The bound troponin changes the shape of tropomyosin (6) Tropomyosin's shape change exposes the myosin binding sites on actin (7) Myosin bridges attach to actin to create muscular force
What are the seven steps of sliding filament theory called?
What are the two contractile muscle proteins?
Actin and myosin
What are the two muscle regulatory proteins?
Troponin and tropomyosin
What causes the myosin head to bread away from actin?
Phosphorylation of ATP
How long will excitation contraction coupling continue?
"As long as the stimulus
What is the energy transduction that occurs in muscle contraction?
Chemical (ATP) to mechanical (muscle contraction)
What element is required to pump Calcium back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
What are the two types of muscle fibers?
What determines the percentage of each muscle fiber type in a muscle?
Genetics and the specific muscle group a muscle is part of
Can the percentage of the two muscle fiber types be altered?
Which muscle fiber type is high in ATPase?
Which muscle fiber type is high in mitochondrial-ase activity?
Which muscle fiber type is high in glycogenolytic activity?
Which muscle fiber type is high in glycogen content?
Both type II and I are the same
Which muscle fiber type is high in myoglobin content?
Which muscle fiber type has high capillary density?
Which muscle fiber type has a fast contraction speed?
Which muscle fiber type has a low activation threshold?
Which muscle fiber type is high tension?
Which muscle fiber type is slow to fatigue?
What is a Type II a muscle fiber?
"A fast oxidative glycolitic fiber
Which muscle fiber is used for endurance?
Which muscle fiber type has high aerobic capacity?
Which muscle fiber type can metabolize lactic acid?
Which muscle fiber type has a low force generation?
Are Type I fibers arranges in large motor groups or small motor groups?
"Small motor groups
"Which muscle fiber type is found in ""power"" muscles?"
What is unique about type II a muscle fibers?
They can be trained to take on either type I or type II characteristics
"Why does someone get stronger
but not get bigger
What hormone plays a part in hypertrophy?
What is hyperplasia?
Splitting of muscle fibers to create new fibers
Is hyperplasia possible in humans to create a stronger individual?
When can satellite cells be found in muscles?
When beginning training and during rehabilitations
How do satellite cells repair damaged tissue?
"Satellite cells replicate
What is the strength of a muscle?
4kg times cm cubed
"What do isotonic
When does a muscle have the poorest leverage?
At 90 degrees to gravity
What does DOMS stand for?
Delayed onset muscle soreness
What is involved in DOMS?
"Increased perceived soreness for 24-72 hours after exercise
What are two markers of muscle damage?
Creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase
What is a marker of connective tissue damage?
Rank the three types of muscle action from greatest force capacity to least
What is the speed of muscle action?
Response time = Reaction time + Movement time
what is muscle reaction time?
The time elapsed from application of stimulus to the first detected muscle contraction
What is movement time?
The time span between the first muscle contraction and the completion of the movement
What is the tension-length curve?
"As a muscle gets shorter or longer
What relationship does calcium ion have to force production in a muscle?
"The more calcium present
What are the four types of chemical messengers in the body?
"Which messenger class has local action
acts by diffusion
"Which messenger class has local and distant action
acts rapidly by synaptic transmission
"Which messenger class has a distant locus of action
is blood borne and acts slowly
What are the two types of hormones?
What is second-messenger theory?
"Many hormones cannot get past cell membrane
What is the significance of Cyclic AMP?
Serves as a second messenger that activates other enzymes that result in glycogen breakdown and glucose availability
What are intracellular hormones?
Lipid-soluble hormones that can pass through cell membranes to bind to receptors in the cell cytoplasm