EMT-Chapter 23-Abdominal, Gynecologic, and Renal Emergencies
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Acute abdominal distress, a sharp severe abdominal pain with rapid onset. It can have a number of causes
The space located below the diaphragm that extends to the top of the pelvis.
- The lining of the abdominal cavity.
- Visceral and parietal.
Majority of abdominal organs, such as the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, part of the large intestine.
Organs such as the kidneys, ureters, pancreas, and abdominal aorta
- LUQ: most of the stomach, spleen, pancreas, part of the large intestine
- RUQ: most of the liver, gallbladder, part of the large intestine, right kidney is behind the abdominal lining
- RLQ: appendix, part of the large intestine, and the female reproductive organs.
- LLQ: part of the large intestine, and female reproductive organs
- Right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac
- Right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar
- Right iliac, hypogastric, left iliac
Contain some type of substance that might leak into the abdominal cavity.
- Poorly localized, intermittent, crampy, dull, or aching pain associated with ischemia or distention of an organ.
- Produced by ischemia(hypoxia of cells), inflammation, infection, or mechanical obstruction of an organ.
Localized, intense, sharp, constant pain associated with irritation of the peritoneum. Also called somatic pain
Pain that is felt in a body part removed from the point of origin of the pain.
Irritation and inflammation of the peritoneum.
A test for peritonitis in which the patient stands on his toes, knees straight, then drop to his heels, or in which heels of a supine patient are struck together or or on the bottom. The jarring of the torso will elicit pain when the peritoneal linings are inflamed.
- Inflammation of the appendix.
- Nausea, vomiting
- low grade fever and chills
- lack of appetite(anorexia)
- abdominal guarding
- positive markle test
- Inflammation of the pancreas
- mild jaundice
- severs pain with radiation from the umbilicus to back and shoulders
- fever, rapid pulse, signs of shock(in extreme cases)
- Inflammation of the gallbladder
- Sudden onset of abdominal pain in the middle to right upper quadrants
- Tenderness upon palpation of the RUQ
- belching or heart burn
- nausea or vomit(contents might be greenish)
Vomiting of blood
Bright and red in the stool
Dark, tarry, stools containing decomposing blood from the upper gastrointestinal system
- Bulging, engorgement, or weakening of the blood vessels in the lining of the lower esophagus
- Large amounts of bright red hematemesis
- absence of pain of tenderness in the abdomen
- Pale cool clammy skin
- jaundice of the skin or eyes
- Inflammation of the stomach and small intestines
- Abdominal pain or cramping
- fever and dehydration
Open wounds or sores within the digestive tract
Blockage that interrupts the normal flow of intestinal contents
Protrusion of a portion of the intestine through an opening or weakness in the abdominal wall
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm(AAA)
- Weakened, ballooned, and enlarged area of the wall of the abdominal aorta
- Testicular pain in male patients
Sickle Cell Crisis
- Bone crisis: large long bones in the arm and legs that cause severe pain
- Acute chest syndrome: sudden onset of chest pain, may cough up blood
- Abdominal pain: sudden abdominal pain,
- Joint crisis: acute onset of one or more painful stiff joints
A position with knees drawn up and hands clenched over the abdomen.
- Any known allergies?
- Currently taking any medications?
- Any medical history leading to this?
- Has the patient's appetite changed?
- Did he vomit? What's the appearance of the vomitus?
- What was the color of the patient's last stools?
- Difficult urinating?
- Palpate the patient's abdomen using the quadrants starting with the least painful one. Ask to relax.
Abdominal wall muscle contraction caused by inflammation of the peritoneum that the patient cannot control. Also called rigidity
A deliberate abdominal wall muscle contraction
- DO NOT GIVE ANYTHING ORALLY
Branch of medicine that studies health of the female and her reproductive organs
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